1 kings chapter 11 summary

1 kings chapter 11 summary DEFAULT

1 Kings 11

New International Version

Solomon’s Wives

11 King Solomon, however, loved many foreign women(A) besides Pharaoh’s daughter—Moabites, Ammonites,(B) Edomites, Sidonians and Hittites.They were from nations about which the Lord had told the Israelites, “You must not intermarry(C) with them, because they will surely turn your hearts after their gods.” Nevertheless, Solomon held fast to them in love.He had seven hundred wives of royal birth and three hundred concubines,(D) and his wives led him astray.(E)As Solomon grew old, his wives turned his heart after other gods,(F) and his heart was not fully devoted(G) to the Lord his God, as the heart of David his father had been.He followed Ashtoreth(H) the goddess of the Sidonians, and Molek(I) the detestable god of the Ammonites.So Solomon did evil(J) in the eyes of the Lord; he did not follow the Lord completely, as David his father had done.

On a hill east(K) of Jerusalem, Solomon built a high place for Chemosh(L) the detestable god of Moab, and for Molek(M) the detestable god of the Ammonites.He did the same for all his foreign wives, who burned incense and offered sacrifices to their gods.

The Lord became angry with Solomon because his heart had turned away from the Lord, the God of Israel, who had appeared(N) to him twice.10 Although he had forbidden Solomon to follow other gods,(O) Solomon did not keep the Lord’s command.(P)11 So the Lord said to Solomon, “Since this is your attitude and you have not kept my covenant and my decrees,(Q) which I commanded you, I will most certainly tear(R) the kingdom away from you and give it to one of your subordinates.12 Nevertheless, for the sake of David(S) your father, I will not do it during your lifetime. I will tear it out of the hand of your son.13 Yet I will not tear the whole kingdom from him, but will give him one tribe(T) for the sake(U) of David my servant and for the sake of Jerusalem, which I have chosen.”(V)

Solomon’s Adversaries

14 Then the Lord raised up against Solomon an adversary,(W) Hadad the Edomite, from the royal line of Edom.15 Earlier when David was fighting with Edom, Joab the commander of the army, who had gone up to bury the dead, had struck down all the men in Edom.(X)16 Joab and all the Israelites stayed there for six months, until they had destroyed all the men in Edom.17 But Hadad, still only a boy, fled to Egypt with some Edomite officials who had served his father.18 They set out from Midian and went to Paran.(Y) Then taking people from Paran with them, they went to Egypt, to Pharaoh king of Egypt, who gave Hadad a house and land and provided him with food.

19 Pharaoh was so pleased with Hadad that he gave him a sister of his own wife, Queen Tahpenes, in marriage.20 The sister of Tahpenes bore him a son named Genubath, whom Tahpenes brought up in the royal palace. There Genubath lived with Pharaoh’s own children.

21 While he was in Egypt, Hadad heard that David rested with his ancestors and that Joab the commander of the army was also dead. Then Hadad said to Pharaoh, “Let me go, that I may return to my own country.”

22 “What have you lacked here that you want to go back to your own country?” Pharaoh asked.

“Nothing,” Hadad replied, “but do let me go!”

23 And God raised up against Solomon another adversary,(Z) Rezon son of Eliada, who had fled from his master, Hadadezer(AA) king of Zobah.24 When David destroyed Zobah’s army, Rezon gathered a band of men around him and became their leader; they went to Damascus,(AB) where they settled and took control.25 Rezon was Israel’s adversary as long as Solomon lived, adding to the trouble caused by Hadad. So Rezon ruled in Aram(AC) and was hostile toward Israel.

Jeroboam Rebels Against Solomon

26 Also, Jeroboam son of Nebat rebelled(AD) against the king. He was one of Solomon’s officials, an Ephraimite from Zeredah, and his mother was a widow named Zeruah.

27 Here is the account of how he rebelled against the king: Solomon had built the terraces(AE) and had filled in the gap in the wall of the city of David his father.28 Now Jeroboam was a man of standing,(AF) and when Solomon saw how well(AG) the young man did his work, he put him in charge of the whole labor force of the tribes of Joseph.

29 About that time Jeroboam was going out of Jerusalem, and Ahijah(AH) the prophet of Shiloh met him on the way, wearing a new cloak. The two of them were alone out in the country,30 and Ahijah took hold of the new cloak he was wearing and tore(AI) it into twelve pieces.31 Then he said to Jeroboam, “Take ten pieces for yourself, for this is what the Lord, the God of Israel, says: ‘See, I am going to tear(AJ) the kingdom out of Solomon’s hand and give you ten tribes.32 But for the sake(AK) of my servant David and the city of Jerusalem, which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel, he will have one tribe.33 I will do this because they have forsaken me and worshiped(AL) Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, Chemosh the god of the Moabites, and Molek the god of the Ammonites, and have not walked(AM) in obedience to me, nor done what is right in my eyes, nor kept my decrees(AN) and laws as David, Solomon’s father, did.

34 “‘But I will not take the whole kingdom out of Solomon’s hand; I have made him ruler all the days of his life for the sake of David my servant, whom I chose and who obeyed my commands and decrees.35 I will take the kingdom from his son’s hands and give you ten tribes.36 I will give one tribe(AO) to his son so that David my servant may always have a lamp(AP) before me in Jerusalem, the city where I chose to put my Name.37 However, as for you, I will take you, and you will rule(AQ) over all that your heart desires;(AR) you will be king over Israel.38 If you do whatever I command you and walk in obedience to me and do what is right(AS) in my eyes by obeying my decrees(AT) and commands, as David my servant did, I will be with you. I will build you a dynasty(AU) as enduring as the one I built for David and will give Israel to you.39 I will humble David’s descendants because of this, but not forever.’”

40 Solomon tried to kill Jeroboam, but Jeroboam fled(AV) to Egypt, to Shishak(AW) the king, and stayed there until Solomon’s death.

Solomon’s Death(AX)

41 As for the other events of Solomon’s reign—all he did and the wisdom he displayed—are they not written in the book of the annals of Solomon?42 Solomon reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel forty years.43 Then he rested with his ancestors and was buried in the city of David his father. And Rehoboam(AY) his son succeeded him as king.

Sours: https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1%20Kings%&version=NIV

1 Kings 11

1 Kings 11 is the eleventh chapter of the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible or the First Book of Kings in the Old Testament of the ChristianBible. The book is a compilation of various annals recording the acts of the kings of Israel and Judah by a Deuteronomic compiler in the seventh century BCE, with a supplement added in the sixth century BCE. This chapter belongs to the section focusing on the reign of Solomon over the unified kingdom of Judah and Israel (1 Kings 1 to 11). The focus of this chapter is Solomon's decline and death.

Text[edit]

This chapter was originally written in the Hebrew language and since the 16th century is divided into 43 verses.

Textual witnesses[edit]

Some early manuscripts containing the text of this chapter in Hebrew are of the Masoretic Text tradition, which includes the Codex Cairensis (), Aleppo Codex (10th century), and Codex Leningradensis ().

There is also a translation into Koine Greek known as the Septuagint, made in the last few centuries BCE. Extant ancient manuscripts of the Septuagint version include Codex Vaticanus (B; {\displaystyle {\mathfrak {G}}}B; 4th century) and Codex Alexandrinus (A; {\displaystyle {\mathfrak {G}}}A; 5th century).[a]

Old Testament references[edit]

Solomon's wives and their Idolatry (–8)[edit]

Solomon marrying many wives might not be considered unethical at that time, especially for diplomatic reasons, but it should be intolerable in light of the Torah (cf. Deuteronomy ), have been intolerable. The passage focuses on religious rather than moral arguments for the foreign wives in a tone similar to post-exilic texts (Ezra 10; Nehemiah 10) viewing them as a temptation threatening loyalty to the God of Israel. Solomon gave his wives something similar to minority rights and religious freedom in modern terms, but he went too far that he committed a grave sin against YHWH, leading to dire consequences.

A Divine Manifestation (–13)[edit]

Because Solomon had "turned away from the Lord", thereby he had broken the first commandment, he faced a consequence of losing power, but in recognition of David's merits, the punishment was delayed and his successor would be left with a smaller kingdom.

Verse 13[edit]

However, I will not tear away all the kingdom, but I will give one tribe to your son, for the sake of David my servant and for the sake of Jerusalem that I have chosen.[11]
  • "Give one tribe": that is "the tribe of Judah", which later became the name of the southern kingdom.[12] However, the tribe of Benjamin can also be counted here due to its close union with the tribe of Judah and their shared property of Jerusalem (as well as the Temple), because the city was of the Jebusite, later conquered by David, but all the ground north of the valley of Hinnom was actually in the tribe of Benjamin.[12] The prophet Ahijah used the same form of words (1 Kings ) when speaking to Jeroboam, after expressly tore his new garment into twelve parts and gave ten of them to Jeroboam.[12][13]

The adversaries of Solomon (–40)[edit]

Solomon's disloyalty to God resulted in the emergence of 'adversary' (Hebrew: satan) to his reign, in form of three different persons: Hadad, an Edomite prince (verses 14–22), Rezon the son of Eliada of Damascus (verses 23–25), and Jeroboam ben Nebat (verses 26–40). The passage clearly states that God was the initiator of these adversaries (verses 14, 23, also 29–33). The brief biography of each adversary presented in the passage has similarities with the earlier history of Israel.

The life of Hadad, the Edomite prince, echoes the history of the migration of Jacob's family to Egypt and the Exodus:

EventHadadJacob's family
moving to Egyptdue to Israel's occupation of Edom by David and Joab (–15)due to famine
kind treatment of Pharaohgiven a house, bread and land ()given the fertile land of Goshen
married into royal familygiven the sister of the queen as wife ()Joseph was given the daughter of high priest as wife
son among Pharaoh's childrenGenubath ()Moses
out of Egyptsought to return (–22)Exodus under Moses

Hadad stated his desire to return to Edom using 'exodus language': "send me out" (based on the same Hebrew verb: shalakh").

The biography of Rezon the son of Eliada of Damascus (–25) also has a parallel with the history of David, the king of Israel.

EventRezonDavid
flee from his masterfrom Hadadezer ()from Saul
gather a bandbecoming a leader of a guerilla force ()becoming a leader of disaffected people in the wilderness
becoming kingrising to the throne in Damascus, Syria ()anointed to the throne in Hebron and then Jerusalem

Jeroboam ben Nebat, Solomon's third adversary, arose from within northern Israel, tellingly from among the forced laborers in Ephraim. The parallels of his biography with the life of David are as follows:

EventJeroboamDavid
valiant warriorpotentially a royal figure ()winning battles against the Philistines
in early life faithfully served his masterserving Solomon ()serving Saul
prophesied by a prophetmeet the prophet Ahijah of Shiloh (–39)anointed by the prophet Samuel who grew up with the priest Eli in Shiloh
torn cloakAhijah torn his cloak and gave to Jeroboam ()Saul torn Samuel's cloak (1 Samuel )
threatened as successorSolomon sought to kill Jeroboam ()Saul sought to kill David
promises of Godto Jeroboam (–39)to David

Ahijah of Shiloh is shown as Jeroboam's supporter in this passage, but he will be Jeroboam's enemy in 1 Kings

Death of Solomon (–43)[edit]

This is the first use regular concluding formula in the books of Kings. The Chronicler mentioned 'the Book of the Acts of Solomon' as a source of information, presumably in form of royal annals.

Verse 42[edit]

And the time that Solomon reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel was forty years.[20]
  • "Forty years": according to Thiele's chronology, the reign of Solomon began when David died between September BCE and September BCE, until Solomon's death between September BCE and April BCE.

See also[edit]

  • Related Bible parts: Deuteronomy 17, 1 Samuel 15, 2 Samuel 7, 2 Samuel 8, 1 Kings 5, 1 Kings 6, 1 Kings 7, 1 Kings 9, 2 Chronicles 2, 2 Chronicles 9, Ezra 10, Nehemiah 10

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

Sources[edit]

  • Collins, John J. (). "Chapter 1 Kings 12 – 2 Kings 25". Introduction to the Hebrew Scriptures. Fortress Press. pp.&#;– ISBN&#;.
  • Coogan, Michael David (). Coogan, Michael David; Brettler, Marc Zvi; Newsom, Carol Ann; Perkins, Pheme (eds.). The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books: New Revised Standard Version, Issue 48 (Augmented 3rd&#;ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN&#;.
  • Dietrich, Walter (). " 1 and 2 Kings". In Barton, John; Muddiman, John (eds.). The Oxford Bible Commentary (first (paperback)&#;ed.). Oxford University Press. pp.&#;– ISBN&#;. Retrieved February 6,
  • Halley, Henry H. (). Halley's Bible Handbook: an abbreviated Bible commentary (24th (revised)&#;ed.). Zondervan Publishing House. ISBN&#;.
  • Hayes, Christine (). Introduction to the Bible. Yale University Press. ISBN&#;.
  • Leithart, Peter J. (). 1 & 2 Kings. Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible. Brazos Press. ISBN&#;.
  • McFall, Leslie (), "Translation Guide to the Chronological Data in Kings and Chronicles"(PDF), Bibliotheca Sacra, : , archived from the original(PDF) on
  • McKane, William (). "Kings, Book of". In Metzger, Bruce M; Coogan, Michael D (eds.). The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press. pp.&#;– ISBN&#;.
  • Metzger, Bruce M; Coogan, Michael D, eds. (). The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN&#;.
  • Thiele, Edwin R., The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, (1st ed.; New York: Macmillan, ; 2d ed.; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, ; 3rd ed.; Grand Rapids: Zondervan/Kregel, ). ISBN&#;
  • Würthwein, Ernst (). The Text of the Old Testament. Translated by Rhodes, Erroll F. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN&#;. Retrieved January 26,

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1_Kings_11
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Matthew Henry :: Commentary on 1 Kings 11

Chapter 11

This chapter begins with as melancholy a "but" as almost any we find in all the Bible. Hitherto we have read nothing of Solomon but what was great and good; but the lustre both of his goodness and of his greatness is here sullied and eclipsed, and his sun sets under a cloud.

  • I. The glory of his piety is stained by his departure from God and his duty, in his latter days, marrying strange wives and worshipping strange gods (v. ).
  • II. The glory of his prosperity is stained by God's displeasure against him and the fruits of that displeasure.
    • 1. He sent him an angry message (v. ).
    • 2. He stirred up enemies, who gave him disturbance, Hadad (v. ), Rezon (v. ).
    • 3. He gave away ten tribes of his twelve, from his posterity after him, to Jeroboam, whom therefore he sought in vain to slay (v. ), and this is all that remains here to be told concerning Solomon, except his death and burial (v. ), for there is nothing perfect under the sun, but all is so above the sun.

1Ki

This is a sad story, and very surprising, of Solomon's defection and degeneracy.

  • I. Let us enquire into the occasions and particulars of it. Shall Solomon fall, that was the beauty of Israel, and so great a blessing of his generation? Yes, it is too true, and the scripture is faithful in relating it, and repeating it, and referring to it long after, Neh. There was noking like Solomon who was beloved of his God, yet even him did outlandish women cause tosin. There is the summary of his apostasy; it was the woman that deceived him, and was first inthe transgression.
    • 1. He doted on strange women, many strange women. Here his revolt began.
      • (1.) He gave himself to women, which his mother had particularly cautioned him against. Prov. , Give notthy strength unto women (perhaps alluding to Samson, who lost his strength by giving information of it to a woman), for it is that which, as much as any thing, destroys kings. His father David's fall began with the lusts of the flesh, which he should have taken warning by. The love of women has cast down many wounded (Prov. ) and many (says bishop Hall) havehad their head broken by their own rib.
      • (2.) He took many women, so many that, at last, they amounted to wives and concubines, in all, and not one good one among them, as he himself owns in his penitential sermon (Eccl. ), for no woman of established virtue would be one of such a set. God had, by his law, particularly forbidden the kings to multiply either horses or wives, Deu. , How he broke the former law, in multiplying horses, and having them out of Egypt too (which was expressly prohibited in that law) we read ch. , and here we are told how he broke the latter (which proved of more fatal consequence) in multiplying wives. Note, Less sins, made gold with, open the door to greater. David had multiplied wives too much, and perhaps that made Solomon presume it lawful. Note, If those that are in reputation for religion in any thing set a bad example, they know not what a deal of mischief they may do by it, particularly to their own children. One bad act of a good man may be of more pernicious consequence to others than twenty of a wicked man. Probably Solomon, when he began to multiply wives, intended not to exceed his father's number. But the way of sin is down-hill; those that have got into it cannot easily stop themselves. Divine wisdom has appointed one woman for one man, did so at first; and those who do not think one enough will not think two or three enough. Unbridled lust will be unbounded, and the loosened hind will wander endlessly. But this was not all:
      • (3.) They were strange women, Moabites, Ammonites, etc., of the nations which God had particularly forbidden them to intermarry with, v. 2. Some think it was in policy that he married these foreigners, by them to get intelligence of the state of those countries. I rather fear it was because the daughters of Israel were too grave and modest for him, and those foreigners pleased him with the looseness and wantonness of their dress, and air, and conversation. Or, perhaps, it was looked upon as a piece of state to have his seraglio, as his other treasures, replenished with that which was far-fetched; as if that were too great an honour for the best of his subjects which would really have been a disgrace to the meanest of them-to be his mistresses. And,
      • (4.) To complete the mischief, Solomon clave unto these inlove,v. 2. He not only kept them, but was extravagantly fond of them, set his heart upon them, spent his time among them, thought every thing well they said and did, and despised Pharaoh's daughter, his rightful wife, who had been dear to him, and all the ladies of Israel, in comparison of them. Solomon was master of a great deal of knowledge, but to what purpose, when he had no better a government of his appetites?
    • 2. He was drawn by them to the worship of strange gods, as Israel to Baal-peor by the daughters of Moab. This was the bad consequence of his multiplying wives. We have reason to think it impaired his health, and hastened upon him the decays of age; it exhausted his treasure, which, though vast indeed, would be found little enough to maintain the pride and vanity of all these women; perhaps it occasioned him, in his latter end, to neglect his business, by which he lost his supplies from abroad, and was forced, for the keeping up of his grandeur, to burden his subjects with those taxes which they complained of, ch. But none of these consequences were so bad as this: His wives turned away his heart after other gods,v. 3, 4.
      • (1.) He grew cool and indifferent in his own religion and remiss in the service of the God of Israel: His heart wasnot perfect with the Lord his God (v. 4), nor did he follow him fully (v. 6), like David. We cannot suppose that he quite cast off the worship of God, much less that he restrained or hindered it (the temple-service went on as usual); but he grew less frequent, and less serious, in his ascent to the house of the Lord and his attendance on his altar. He left his first love, lost his zeal for God, and did not persevere to the end as he had begun; therefore it is said he was notperfect, because he was not constant; and he followed not God fully, because he turned from following him, and did not continue to the end. His father David had many faults, but he never neglected the worship of God, nor grew remiss in that, as Solomon did (his wives using all their arts to divert him from it), and there began his apostasy.
      • (2.) He tolerated and maintained his wives in their idolatry and made no scruple of joining with them in it. Pharaoh's daughter was proselyted (as is supposed) to the Jews' religion, but, when he began to grow careless in the worship of God himself, he used no means to convert his other wives to it; in complaisance to them, he built chapels for their gods (v. 7, 8), maintained their priests, and occasionally did himself attend their altars, making a jest of it, asking, "What harm is there in it? Are not all religions alike?" which (says bishop Patrick) has been the disease of some great wits. When he humoured one thus, the rest would take it ill if he did not, in like manner, gratify them, so that he did it for all his wives (v. 8), and at last came to such a degree of impiety that he set up a high place for Chemosh in the hill that is before Jerusalem, the mount of Olives, as if to confront the temple which he himself had built. These high places continued here, not utterly demolished, till Josiah's time, 2 Ki. This is the account here given of Solomon's apostasy.
  • II. Let us now pause awhile, and lament Solomon's fall; and we may justly stand and wonder at it. How has the gold become dim! How has the most fine gold changed! Beastonished, O heavens! at this, and be horribly afraid, as the prophet exclaims in a like case, Jer.
    • 1. How strange,
      • (1.) That Solomon, in his old age, should be ensnared with fleshly lusts, youthful lusts. As we must never presume upon the strength of our resolutions, so neither upon the weakness of our corruptions, so as to be secure and off our guard.
      • (2.) That so wise a man as Solomon was, so famed for a quick understanding and sound judgment, should suffer himself to be made such a fool of by these foolish women.
      • (3.) That one who had so often and so plainly warned others of the danger of the love of women should himself be so wretchedly bewitched with it; it is easier to see a mischief, and to show it to others, than to shun it ourselves.
      • (4.) That so good a man, so zealous for the worship of God, who had been so conversant with divine things, and who prayed that excellent prayer at the dedication of the temple, should do these sinful things. Is this Solomon? Have all his wisdom and devotion come to this at last? Never was gallant ship so wrecked; never was crown so profaned.
    • 2. What shall we say to all this? Why God permitted it it is not for us to enquire; his way is in the sea and his path in the great waters; he knew how to bring glory to himself out of it. God foresaw it when he said concerning him that should build the temple, If he commit iniquity, etc., 2 Sa. But it concerns us to enquire what good use we may make of it.
      • (1.) Let him that thinks he stands take heed lest he fall. We see how weak we are of ourselves, without the grace of God; let us therefore live in a constant dependence on that grace.
      • (2.) See the danger of a prosperous condition, and how hard it is to overcome the temptations of it. Solomon, like Jeshurun, waxed fat and then kicked. The food convenient, which Agur prayed for, is safer and better than the food abundant, which Solomon was even surfeited with.
      • (3.) See what need those have to stand upon their guard who have made a great profession of religion, and shown themselves forward and zealous in devotion, because the devil will set upon them most violently, and, if they misbehave, the reproach is the greater. It is the evening that commends the day; let us therefore fear, lest, having run well, we seem to come short.

1Ki

Here is,

  • I. God's anger against Solomon for his sin. The thing he did displeased the Lord. Time was then the Lord loved Solomon (2 Sa. ) and delighted in him (ch. ), but now the Lord was angry with Solomon (v. 9), for there was in his sin,
    • 1. The most base ingratitude that could be. He turned from the Lord who had appeared unto him twice, once before he began to build the temple (ch. ) and once after he had dedicated it, ch. God keeps account of the gracious visits he makes us, whether we do or no, knows how often he has appeared to us and for us, and will remember it against us if we turn from him. God's appearing to Solomon was such a sensible confirmation of his faith as should have for ever prevented his worshipping any other god; it was also such a distinguishing favour, and put such an honour upon him, as he ought never to have forgotten, especially considering what God said to him in both these appearances.
    • 2. The most wilful disobedience. This was the very thing concerning which God had commanded him-that he should not go after other gods, yet he was not restrained by such an express admonition, v. Those who have dominion over men are apt to forget God's dominion over them; and, while they demand obedience from their inferiors, to deny it to him who is the Supreme.
  • II. The message he sent him hereupon (v. 11): The Lord said unto Solomon (it is likely by a prophet) that he must expect to smart for his apostasy. And here,
    • 1. The sentence is just, that, since he had revolted from God, part of his kingdom should revolt from his family; he had given God's glory to the creature, and therefore God would give his crown to his servant: "I will rendthe kingdom from thee, in thy posterity, and will give it to thy servant, who shall bear rule over much of that for which thou hast laboured." This was a great mortification to Solomon, who pleased himself no doubt with the prospect of the entail of his rich kingdom upon his heirs for ever. Sin brings ruin upon families, cuts off entails, alienates estates, and lays men's honour in the dust.
    • 2. Yet the mitigations of it are very kind, for David's sake (v. 12, 13), that is, for the sake of the promise made to David. Thus all the favour God shows to man is for Christ's sake, and for the sake of the covenant made with him. The kingdom shall be rent from Solomon's house, but,
      • (1.) Not immediately. Solomon shall not live to see it done, but it shall be rent out of thehand of his son, a son that was born to him by one of his strange wives, for his mother was an Ammonitess (1 Ki. ) and probably had been a promoter of idolatry. What comfort can a man take in leaving children and an estate behind him if he do not leave a blessing behind him? Yet, if judgments be coming, it is a favour to us if they come not in our days, as 2 Ki.
      • (2.) Not wholly. One tribe, that of Judah, the strongest and most numerous, shall remain to the house of David (v. 13), for Jerusalem's sake, which David built, and for the sake of the temple there, which Solomon built; these shall not go into other hands. Solomon did not quickly nor wholly turn away from God; therefore God did not quickly nor wholly take the kingdom from him.

Upon this message which God graciously sent to Solomon, to awaken his conscience and bring him to repentance, we have reason to hope that he humbled himself before God, confessed his sin, begged pardon, and returned to his duty, that he then published his repentance in the book of Ecclesiastes, where he bitterly laments his own folly and madness (ch. , 26), and warns others to take heed of the like evil courses, and to fear God and keep his commandments, in consideration of the judgment to come, which, it is likely, had made him tremble, as it did Felix. That penitential sermon was as true an indication of a heart broken for sin and turned from it as David's penitential psalms were, though of another nature. God's grace in his people works variously. Thus, though Solomon fell, he was not utterly cast down; what God had said to David concerning him was fulfilled: I will chasten him with the rod of men, but my mercy shallnot depart from him,2 Sa. , Though God may suffer those whom he loves to fall into sin, he will not suffer them to lie still in it. Solomon's defection, though it was much his reproach and a great blemish to his personal character, yet did not so far break in upon the character of his reign but that it was afterwards made the pattern of a good reign, 2 Chr. , where the kings are said to have done well, while they walked in the way of David and Solomon. But, though we have all this reason to hope he repented and found mercy, yet the Holy Ghost did not think fit expressly to record his recovery, but left it doubtful, for warning to others not to sin upon presumption of repenting, for it is but a peradventure whether God will give themrepentance, or, if he do, whether he will give the evidence of it to themselves or others. Great sinners may recover themselves and have the benefit of their repentance, and yet be denied both the comfort and credit of it; the guilt may be taken away, and yet not the reproach.

1Ki

While Solomon kept closely to God and to his duty there was no adversary nor eviloccurrent (ch. ), nothing to create him any disturbance or uneasiness in the least; but here we have an account of two adversaries that appeared against him, inconsiderable, and that could not have done any thing worth taking notice of if Solomon had not first made God his enemy. What hurt could Hadad or Rezon have done to so great and powerful a king as Solomon was if he had not, by sin, made himself mean and weak? And then those little people menace and insult him. If God be on our side, we need not fear the greatest adversary; but, if he be against us, he can made us fear the least, and the very grasshopper shall be a burden. Observe,

  • I. Both these adversaries God stirred up, v. 14, Though they themselves were moved by principles of ambition or revenge, God made use of them to serve his design of correcting Solomon. The principal judgment threatened was deferred, namely, the rending of the kingdom from him, but he himself was made to fee the smart of the rod, for his greater humiliation. Note, Whoever are, in any way, adversaries to us, we must take notice of the hand of God stirring them up to be so, as he bade Shimei curse David; we must look through the instruments of our trouble to the author of it and hear the Lord's controversy in it.
  • II. Both these adversaries had the origin of their enmity to Solomon and Israel laid in David's time, and in his conquests of their respective countries, v. 15, Solomon had the benefit and advantage of his father's successes both in the enlargement of his dominion and the increase of his treasure, and would never have known any thing but the benefit of them if he had kept closely to God; but now he finds evils to balance the advantages, and that David had made himself enemies, who were thorns in his sides. Those that are too free in giving provocation ought to consider that perhaps it may be remembered in time to come and returned with interest to theirs after them; having so few friends in this world, it is our wisdom not to make ourselves more enemies than we needs must.
    • 1. Hadad, an Edomite, was an adversary to Solomon. We are not told what he did against him, nor which way he gave him disturbance, only, in general, that he was an adversary to him: but we are told,
      • (1.) What induced him to bear Solomon a grudge. David had conquered Edom, 2 Sa. Joab put all the males to the sword, v. 15, A terrible execution he made, avenging on Edom their old enmity to Israel, yet perhaps with too great a severity. From this general slaughter, while Joab was burying the slain (for he left not any alive of their own people to bury them, and buried they must be, or they would be an annoyance to the country, Eze. ), Hadad, a branch of the royal family, then a little child, was taken and preserved by some of the king's servants, and conveyed to Egypt, v. They halted by the way, in Midian first, and then in Paran, where they furnished themselves with men, not to fight for them or force their passage, but to attend them, that their young master might go into Egypt with an equipage agreeable to his quality. There he was kindly sheltered and entertained by Pharaoh, as a distressed prince, as well provided for, and so recommended himself that, in process of time, he married the queen's sister (v. 19), and by her had a child, which the queen herself conceived such a kindness for that she brought him up in Pharaoh's house, among the king's children.
      • (2.) What enabled him to do Solomon a mischief. Upon the death of David and Joab, he returned to his own country, in which, it should seem, he settled and remained quiet while Solomon continued wise and watchful for the public good, but from which he had opportunity of making inroads upon Israel when Solomon, having sinned away his wisdom as Samson did his strength (and in the same way), grew careless of public affairs, was off his guard himself, and had forfeited the divine protection. What vexation Hadad gave to Solomon we are not here told, but only how loth Pharaoh was to part with him and how earnestly he solicited his stay (v. 22): What hast thou lacked with me? "Nothing," says Hadad; "but let me go to my own country, my native air, my native soil." Peter Martyr has a pious reflection upon this: "Heaven is our home, and we ought to keep up a holy affection to that, and desire towards it, even when the world, the place of our banishment, smiles most upon us." Does it ask, What have you lacked, that you are so willing to be gone? We may answer, "Nothing that the world can do for us; but still let us go thither, where our hope, and honour, and treasure are."
    • 2. Rezon, a Syrian, was another adversary to Solomon. When David conquered the Syrians, he headed the remains, lived at large by spoil and rapine, till Solomon grew careless, and then he got possession of Damascus, reigned there (v. 24) and over the country about (v. 25), and he created troubles to Israel, probably in conjunction with Hadad, all the days of Solomon (namely, after his apostasy), or he was an enemy to Israel during all Solomon's reign, and upon all occasions vented his then impotent malice against them, but till Solomon's revolt, when his defence had departed from him, he could not do them any mischief. It is said of him that heabhorred Israel. Other princes loved and admired Israel and Solomon, and courted their friendship, but here was one that abhorred them. The greatest and best of princes and people, however much they may in general be respected, will yet perhaps be hated and abhorred by some.

1Ki

We have here the first mention of that infamous name Jeroboam the son of Nebat, thatmade Israel to sin; he is here brought upon the stage as an adversary to Solomon, whom God had expressly told (v. 11) that he would give the greatest part of his kingdom to his servant, and Jeroboam was the man. We have here an account,

  • I. Of his extraction, v. He was of the tribe of Ephraim, he next in honour to Judah. His mother was a widow, to whom Providence had made up the loss of a husband in a son that was active and ingenious, and (we may suppose) a great support and comfort to her.
  • II. Of his elevation. It was Solomon's wisdom, when he had work to do, to employ proper persons in it. He observed Jeroboam to be a very industrious young man, one that minded his business, took a pleasure in it, and did it with all his might, and therefore he gradually advanced him, till at length he made him receiver-general for the two tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh, or perhaps put him into an office equivalent to that of lord-lieutenant of those two counties, for he was ruler of the burden, or tribute, that is, either of the taxes or of the militia of the house of Joseph. Note, Industry is the way to preferment. Seest thou a man diligent in his business, that will take care and pains, and go through with it? he shall stand before kings, and not always be on the level with mean men. Observe a difference between David, and both his predecessor and his successor: when Saul saw a valiant man he took him to himself (1 Sa. ); when Solomon saw an industrious man he preferred him; but David's eyes were upon the faithful inthe land, that they might dwell with him: if he saw a godly man, he preferred him, for he was a man after God's own heart, whose countenance beholds the upright.
  • III. Of his designation to the government of the ten tribes after the death of Solomon. Some think he was himself plotting against Solomon, and contriving to rise to the throne, that he was turbulent and aspiring. The Jews say that when he was employed by Solomon in building Millo he took opportunities of reflecting upon Solomon as oppressive to his people, and suggesting that which would alienate them from his government. It is not indeed probable that he should say much to that purport, for Solomon would have got notice of it, and it would have hindered his preferment; but it is plainly intimated that he had it in his thoughts, for the prophet tells him (v. 37), Thou shalt reign according to all that thy soul desireth. But this was the cause, or rather this was the story, of the lifting up of his hand against the king: Solomon made him ruler over the tribes of Joseph, and, as he was going to take possession of his government, he was told by a prophet in God's name that he should be king, which emboldened him to aim high, and in some instances to oppose the king and give him vexation.
    • 1. The prophet by whom this message was sent was Ahijah of Shiloh; we shall read of him again, ch. It seems, Shiloh was not so perfectly forsaken and forgotten of God but that, in remembrance of the former days, it was blessed with a prophet. He delivered his message to Jeroboam in the way, his servants being probably ordered to retire, as in a like case (1 Sa. ), when Samuel delivered his message to Saul. God's word was not the less sacred and sure for being delivered to him thus obscurely, under a hedge it may be.
    • 2. The sign by which it was represented to him was the rending of a garment into twelve pieces, and giving him ten, v. 30, It is not certain whether the garment was Jeroboam's, as is commonly taken for granted, or Ahijah's, which is more probable: He (that is, the prophet) had clad himself with a new garment, on purpose that he might with it give him a sign. The rending of the kingdom from Saul was signified by the rending of Samuel's mantle, not Saul's, 1 Sa. , And it was more significant to give Jeroboam ten pieces of that which was not his own before than of that which was. The prophets, both true and false, used such signs, even in the New Testament, as Agabus, Acts ,
    • 3. The message itself, which is very particular,
      • (1.) He assures him that he shall be king over ten of the twelve tribes of Israel, v. The meanness of his extraction and employment shall be no hindrance to his advancement, when the God of Israel says (by whom kings reign), I will give ten tribes untothee.
      • (2.) He tells him the reason; not for his good character or deserts, but for the chastising of Solomon's apostasy: "Because he, and his family, and many of his people with him, haveforsaken me, and worshipped other gods,"v. It was because they had done ill, not because he was likely to do much better. Thus Israel must know that it is not for theirrighteousness that they are made masters of Canaan, but for the wickedness of the Canaanites, Deu. Jeroboam did not deserve so good a post, but Israel deserved so bad a prince. In telling him that the reason why he rent the kingdom from the house of Solomon was because they had forsaken God, he warns him to take heed of sinning away his preferment in like manner.
      • (3.) He limits his expectations to the ten tribes only, and to them in reversion after the death of Solomon, lest he should aim at the whole and give immediate disturbance to Solomon's government. He is here told,
        • [1.] That two tribes (called here one tribe, because little Benjamin was in a manner lost in the thousands of Judah) should remain sure to the house of David, and he must never make any attempt upon them: He shall have one tribe (v. 32), and again (v. 36), That David may have a lamp, that is, a shining name and memory (Ps. ), and his family, as a royal family, may not be extinct. He must not think that David was rejected, as Saul was. No, God would not take his loving-kindness from him, as he did from Saul. The house of David must be supported and kept in reputation, for all this, because out of it the Messiah must arise. Destroy it not, for that blessing is in it.
        • [2.] That Solomon must keep possession during his life, v. 34, Jeroboam therefore must not offer to dethrone him, but wait with patience till his day shall come to fall. Solomon shall be prince, all the days of his life, not for his own sake (he had forfeited his crown to the justice of God), but for David myservant's sake, because he kept my commandments. Children that do not tread in their parents' steps yet often fare the better in this world for their good parents' piety.
      • (4.) He gives him to understand that he will be upon his good behaviour. The grant of the crown must run quamdiu se bene gesserit-during good behaviour. "If thou wilt do what is right in my sight, I will buildthee a sure house, and not otherwise" (v. 38), intimating that, if he forsook God, even his advancement to the throne would in time lay his family in the dust; whereas the seed of David, though afflicted, should not be afflicted for ever (v. 39), but should flourish again, as it did in many of the illustrious kings of Judah, who reigned in glory when Jeroboam's family was extirpated.
  • IV. Jeroboam's flight into Egypt, v. In some way or other Solomon came to know of all this, probably from Jeroboam's own talk of it; he could not conceal it as Saul did, nor keep his own counsel; if he had, he might have staid in his country, and been preparing there for his future advancement; but letting it be known,
    • 1. Solomon foolishly sought to kill his successor. Had not he taught others that, whatever devices are in men's hearts, the counsel of the Lord shall stand? And yet does he himself think to defeat that counsel?
    • 2. Jeroboam prudently withdrew into Egypt. Though God's promise would have secured him any where, yet he would use means for his own preservation, and was content to live in exile and obscurity for a while, being sure of a kingdom at last. And shall not we be so, who have a better kingdom in reserve?

1Ki

We have here the conclusion of Solomon's story, and in it,

  • 1. Reference is had to another history then extant, but (not being divinely inspired) since lost, the Book of the Acts ofSolomon,v. Probably this book was written by a chronologer or historiographer, whom Solomon employed to write his annals, out of which the sacred writer extracted what God saw fit to transmit to the church.
  • 2. A summary of the years of his reign (v. 42): He reigned inJerusalem (not, as his father, part of his time in Hebron and part in Jerusalem), over all Israel (not as his son, and his father in the beginning of his time, over Judah only), forty years. His reign was as long as his father's, but not his life. Sin shortened his days.
  • 3. His death and burial, and his successor, v.
    • (1.) He followed his fathers to the grave, slept with them, and was buried in David's burying-place, with honour no doubt.
    • (2.) His son followed him in the throne. Thus the graves are filling with the generations that go off, and houses are filling with those that are growing up. As the grave cries, "Give, give," so land is never lost for want of an heir.

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The Holy Bible - 1 Kings Chapter 11 (KJV)

1 Kings 11 &#; Solomon’s Decline and Death

A. Solomon’s apostasy.

1. () Solomon’s unlawful marriages.

But King Solomon loved many foreign women, as well as the daughter of Pharaoh: women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Sidonians, and Hittites—from the nations of whom the LORD had said to the children of Israel, “You shall not intermarry with them, nor they with you. Surely they will turn away your hearts after their gods.” Solomon clung to these in love. And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines; and his wives turned away his heart.

a. Solomon loved many foreign women: There are two obvious problems here. First, that he loved foreign women who worshipped other gods and brought pagan influences to Israel. Second, that he loved many women, rejecting God’s plan from the beginning for one man and one woman to become one flesh in marriage (Matthew , Genesis ).

b. Nations of whom the LORD had said to the children of Israel, “You shall not intermarry with them”: God gave a general warning to all Israel to not intermarry with these nations, because surely they will turn away your hearts after their gods. For all Solomon’s great wisdom, he did not have the wisdom to apply this simple command to his own life.

i. Solomon probably did what many of us do. He somehow thought that he would be the exception, that he would escape the consequences of this sin, despite seeing how it affected others. Solomon learned – or should have learned – that he was not the exception to this rule.

c. Solomon clung to these in love: At this point, Solomon wanted romance and sensual fulfillment more than he wanted the LORD. For all his wisdom, he was snared by the power of romantic and sensual love. He did not seriously consider that it is possible to be romantically and sensually attracted to people we have no moral or righteous reason to be attracted to. Once under the power of this attraction, he clung to these in love instead of giving them up to the LORD.

d. He had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines: This is an almost unbelievable number of marriage partners. His wives were considered princesses, but his concubines were legal partners without the same standing as wives. All said, Solomon had far more marriage partners than any man could possibly give attention to – sexual attention or other attention.

i. In this sense a concubine was a legal mistress. Many prominent men in the Old Testament had concubines. Examples include Abraham (Genesis ), Jacob (Genesis ), Caleb (1 Chronicles ), Saul (2 Samuel ), David (2 Samuel ), and Rehoboam (2 Chronicles ). Significantly, the Bible never shows this kind of family life blessed by God.

ii. We can say that Solomon had so many marriage partners because he followed the bad example of his father David, who had many wives and concubines himself (2 Samuel ).

iii. We can say that Solomon had so many marriage partners because of his own sexual lust. This is a profound and sobering example of the principle that if one wife is not enough to satisfy a man, then 1, wives will not be enough. When a man is unsatisfied with the woman God gave to him, the problem is with him, not with his wife. 1, women cannot satisfy the lust of a man. Solomon should have listened to Proverbs Hell and Destruction are never full; so the eyes of man are never satisfied.

iv. We can say that Solomon had so many marriage partners because of his lust for power and prestige. In those days a large harem was a status symbol. It said to the world, “Look how many wives and children I can support. Look how many women I have authority over.” Solomon’s desire for worldly prestige led him to these ungodly marriages.

v. “Partly for his lust, which being indulged, becomes infinite and unsatiable; and partly from his pride, accounting this a point of honour and magnificence.” (Poole)

d. And his wives turned away his heart: Of course they did. Based upon the Song of Solomon, we can say that at the first Solomon seemed to know what true love was with one woman. Yet his subsequent history shows us that it is possible to be in that place and depart from it. It is not true to say that “love will keep us together.” Solomon shows us that we can know true love and depart from it. It is better said that the blessing and power of God upon our obedience will keep us together.

i. We don’t know when Solomon added his second wife. When he did, it was easy for him to rationalize it &#; after all, the greatest King of Israel, his father David, had several wives and concubines. Yet once he followed his father David into this departure from God’s plan from the beginning (Matthew and Genesis ), it was easy to keep adding wives.

ii. As he added wives, he broke the specific commandment God gave to the future kings of Israel in Deuteronomy Neither shall he multiply wives for himself, lest his heart turn away. Solomon did multiply wives for himself (by any account 1, marriage partners is multiplication), and it did turn away his heart.

iii. “It would have been useless to argue with Solomon for the claims of idols. He could at once, by his wisdom, have annihilated all infidel arguments, and have established the existence and unity of God. But, step by step, he was led by silken cords, a captive, to the worship of other gods.” (Meyer)

iv. “The whole story of King Solomon is full of the most solemn value. His was a life full of promise, but it ended in failure and gloom, because his heart turned from loyalty to God, in response to the seductions of his sensual nature.” (Morgan)

2. () Solomon’s wives turn him away from God.

For it was so, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned his heart after other gods; and his heart was not loyal to the LORD his God, as was the heart of his father David. For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites. Solomon did evil in the sight of the LORD, and did not fully follow the LORD, as did his father David. Then Solomon built a high place for Chemosh the abomination of Moab, on the hill that is east of Jerusalem, and for Molech the abomination of the people of Ammon. And he did likewise for all his foreign wives, who burned incense and sacrificed to their gods.

a. When Solomon was old, that his wives turned his heart after other gods: Age did not make Solomon wiser. He seemed to be wiser in his youth, and old age hardened the sinful tendencies that were present in his younger days. Age and experience should make us more godly and wise, but they do not automatically do so.

b. His heart was not loyal to the LORD his God: Solomon is a contrast to those who did fully follow the LORD. This phrase is used in a positive sense of three men in the Old Testament: Joshua and Caleb (Numbers , Deuteronomy , Joshua , 14), and here of David. Solomon was conspicuous as someone who did not wholly follow the LORD.

c. As was the heart of his father David: Solomon had more than one wife and David had more than one wife (fifteen, according to 1 Chronicles ). David spiritually survived this failing and Solomon did not survive it.

i. From what we know of the world beyond from the story of Jesus in Luke , we can say that David was not yet in heaven, but in a place of blessing and comfort known as Abraham’s bosom. If it were possible for someone in Abraham’s bosom to see life on the earth and be sorry, David was very sorry when he saw Solomon and his sin. David no doubt hoped that his children would be better than he, and find more victory in the areas of life that troubled him. Sadly, David’s sons found less victory in controlling the lust of the flesh, and especially sexual lust.

ii. Yet David’s sin did not turn his heart away from the LORD. It is possible for a particular sin in one person to be a hindrance that they would do better without, while in another person that sin is the cause of ruin. David’s lack of romantic and sexual restraint hindered him; it destroyed Solomon. This is one reason why we must be so careful with the sin of stumbling another brother or sister (Romans 14, 1 Corinthians 8).

d. For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians… after Milcom… Solomon built a high place for Chemosh… and for Molech: This seems almost unbelievable. We might not accept it unless the Scriptures clearly stated it. This man of great heritage, wisdom, and blessing turns to the most depraved gods of the pagan nations.

i. Probably Solomon did not see this as a denial of the Lord God of Israel. In his mind, he probably thought that he still honored the LORD, he simply added the honor of these other gods to his honor of the LORD. But this is never acceptable to God. He demands to be the only God in our life.

ii. This is a tragic example of the power of the lust of the flesh. Because of lust, Solomon found himself in a place where he never thought he would find himself. He found himself burning incense at the altars of depraved pagan gods. He found himself at the altar of child sacrifice unto the god Molech. This is the power of lust &#; it can capture us in a spell, in a fog of spiritual confusion until we do things we never thought we would do.

iii. The reader should carefully consider: If this was the case with the wisest man who ever lived, then what hope do you have apart from constant dependence upon Jesus Christ? Let the example of Solomon drive you to greater dependence upon and abiding with Jesus.

iv. “‘Ashtoreth’ is a deliberate distortion of Ashtart, the Canaanite fertility goddess. The revocalization is based on the word for ‘shame’.” (Patteson and Austel)

3. () God announces His judgment.

So the LORD became angry with Solomon, because his heart had turned from the LORD God of Israel, who had appeared to him twice, and had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods; but he did not keep what the LORD had commanded. Therefore the LORD said to Solomon, “Because you have done this, and have not kept My covenant and My statutes, which I have commanded you, I will surely tear the kingdom away from you and give it to your servant. Nevertheless I will not do it in your days, for the sake of your father David; I will tear it out of the hand of your son. However I will not tear away the whole kingdom; I will give one tribe to your son for the sake of my servant David, and for the sake of Jerusalem which I have chosen.”

a. So the LORD became angry with Solomon: God had special reason to be displeased with Solomon &#; He had appeared to him twice, and Solomon still went after other gods. Solomon’s sin was base ingratitude and a waste of great spiritual privilege.

i. We sometimes think that great spiritual experiences will keep us from sin and will keep us faithful to God. This was not the case with the wisest man who ever lived, and it will not be the case with us also.

b. I will surely tear the kingdom away from you and give it to your servant: God promised the entire kingdom of Israel to the descendants of David forever, if they only remained obedient. David reminded Solomon of this promise shortly before his death (1 Kings ). Yet they could not remain faithful even one generation.

i. Solomon’s kingdom was an outstanding example of wealth, military power, and prestige. Yet the true security of Israel did not rest in any of those things. It rested in the blessing of God and in the obedience and faithfulness of their king.

c. I will not do it in your days, for the sake of your father David; I will tear it out of the hand of your son: For the sake of David, God delayed this judgment until after Solomon’s generation. But the disobedience that brought the judgment came in the first generation.

d. However I will not tear away the whole kingdom; I will give one tribe to your son for the sake of my servant David: Even in this great judgment, God must mingle undeserved mercy with deserved judgment. God announces that the kingdom will be divided, and part of it will be loyal to the descendants of David and part of it will be under a different dynasty.

i. Many other passages in the Old Testament (such as 2 Chronicles ) tell us that the southern kingdom was made up of two tribes, Judah and Benjamin. Several times in this chapter the southern kingdom is referred to as one tribe. This is because either Benjamin is swallowed up in Judah, or the idea was one tribe in addition to Judah.

B. Two foreign adversaries of Solomon.

1. () Hadad the Edomite.

Now the LORD raised up an adversary against Solomon, Hadad the Edomite; he was a descendant of the king in Edom. For it happened, when David was in Edom, and Joab the commander of the army had gone up to bury the slain, after he had killed every male in Edom (because for six months Joab remained there with all Israel, until he had cut down every male in Edom), that Hadad fled to go to Egypt, he and certain Edomites of his father’s servants with him. Hadad was still a little child. Then they arose from Midian and came to Paran; and they took men with them from Paran and came to Egypt, to Pharaoh king of Egypt, who gave him a house, apportioned food for him, and gave him land. And Hadad found great favor in the sight of Pharaoh, so that he gave him as wife the sister of his own wife, that is, the sister of Queen Tahpenes. Then the sister of Tahpenes bore him Genubath his son, whom Tahpenes weaned in Pharaoh’s house. And Genubath was in Pharaoh’s household among the sons of Pharaoh. So when Hadad heard in Egypt that David rested with his fathers, and that Joab the commander of the army was dead, Hadad said to Pharaoh, “Let me depart, that I may go to my own country.” Then Pharaoh said to him, “But what have you lacked with me, that suddenly you seek to go to your own country?” So he answered, “Nothing, but do let me go anyway.”

a. Now the LORD raised up an adversary against Solomon, Hadad the Edomite: Solomon’s reign was glorious, but God did not allow it to be completely without problems. He raised up adversaries like Hadad against Solomon.

i. “When he sent to Hiram to assist him in the building of the temple of the Lord, he could say, There was no Satan [1 Kings ]… but now that he had turned away from God three satans rise up against him at once, Hadad, Rezon, and Jeroboam.” (Clarke)

b. He was a descendant of the king in Edom: Hadad sought to avenge his conquered people. He found refuge and support in Egypt.

c. Let me depart, that I may go to my own country: We are not told specifically how Hadad troubled or was an adversary to Solomon, only that he returned to bother Solomon with the permission of Pharaoh.

2. () Rezon, from the north country.

And God raised up another adversary against him, Rezon the son of Eliadah, who had fled from his lord, Hadadezer king of Zobah. So he gathered men to him and became captain over a band of raiders, when David killed those of Zobah. And they went to Damascus and dwelt there, and reigned in Damascus. He was an adversary of Israel all the days of Solomon (besides the trouble that Hadad caused); and he abhorred Israel, and reigned over Syria.

a. God raised up another adversary against him: As a reigning king, Solomon was remarkably successful but he was not a superman. As God allowed an adversary from the south (Hadad, 1 Kings ), so God also raised up another adversary against Solomon. God knew that Solomon needed some kind of adversary, and He knew how many adversaries Solomon needed.

b. Rezon the son of Eliadah: This adversary came from the north. God allowed adversaries to come against Solomon from both north and south. In some ways, men and women are shaped by their adversaries, and especially by their response to those adversaries.

C. Jeroboam &#; A special adversary.

1. () Jeroboam, the servant of Solomon.

Then Solomon’s servant, Jeroboam the son of Nebat, an Ephraimite from Zereda, whose mother’s name was Zeruah, a widow, also rebelled against the king. And this is what caused him to rebel against the king: Solomon had built the Millo and repaired the damages to the City of David his father. The man Jeroboam was a mighty man of valor; and Solomon, seeing that the young man was industrious, made him the officer over all the labor force of the house of Joseph.

a. Jeroboam the son of Nebat, an Ephraimite: Jeroboam was different from the two previously mentioned adversaries of Solomon, because he was a fellow Israelite.

b. This is what caused him to rebel against the king: Solomon had built the Millo and repaired the damages to the City of David: It is not immediately apparent why these construction projects caused him to rebel against Solomon. Jewish traditions say he opposed the oppressive use of forced labor in these building projects. Since he was the officer over all the labor force, this tradition makes some sense.

i. According to Dilday, the name Jeroboam means, “may the people be great.” He perhaps was a populist leader.

ii. “Though only presenting the people’s petition, it is nevertheless probable that Jeroboam was not idle, but like an artful politician, busy behind the scenes, till the coveted crown became his.” (Knapp)

c. Jeroboam was a mighty man of valor: This made him a more dangerous adversary of Solomon.

2. () The prophet Ahijah speaks to Jeroboam.

Now it happened at that time, when Jeroboam went out of Jerusalem, that the prophet Ahijah the Shilonite met him on the way; and he had clothed himself with a new garment, and the two were alone in the field. Then Ahijah took hold of the new garment that was on him, and tore it into twelve pieces. And he said to Jeroboam, “Take for yourself ten pieces, for thus says the LORD, the God of Israel: ‘Behold, I will tear the kingdom out of the hand of Solomon and will give ten tribes to you (but he shall have one tribe for the sake of My servant David, and for the sake of Jerusalem, the city which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel), because they have forsaken Me, and worshiped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, Chemosh the god of the Moabites, and Milcom the god of the people of Ammon, and have not walked in My ways to do what is right in My eyes and keep My statutes and My judgments, as did his father David. However I will not take the whole kingdom out of his hand, because I have made him ruler all the days of his life for the sake of My servant David, whom I chose because he kept My commandments and My statutes. But I will take the kingdom out of his son’s hand and give it to you; ten tribes. And to his son I will give one tribe, that My servant David may always have a lamp before Me in Jerusalem, the city which I have chosen for Myself, to put My name there.

a. Take for yourself ten pieces: In this acted-out prophecy, Ahijah showed Jeroboam that he would lead ten tribes of a divided Israel after the death of Solomon.

i. “It was indeed a shock for Rehoboam and the tribe of Judah to be reduced overnight from the most powerful tribe in an illustrious and world-renowned kingdom to a small state that was soon stripped of what wealth it had left.” (Patterson and Austel)

b. Because they have forsaken Me: God promised to divide Israel and put ten of the twelve tribes under Jeroboam as judgment for the sin and idolatry of Solomon. God would still keep one tribe under the house of David, in faithfulness to His promise to David.

i. This is the first we hear of the divided kingdom, which became Israel’s history for hundreds of years after the death of Solomon. At this first description we would expect that the ten tribes under Jeroboam would be larger, greater, and more enduring than the one tribe left unto the House of David. As it worked out, just the opposite happened because the ten tribes forsook the LORD, while the one tribe was more obedient.

3. () Jeroboam’s great opportunity.

So I will take you, and you shall reign over all your heart desires, and you shall be king over Israel. Then it shall be, if you heed all that I command you, walk in My ways, and do what is right in My sight, to keep My statutes and My commandments, as My servant David did, then I will be with you and build for you an enduring house, as I built for David, and will give Israel to you. And I will afflict the descendants of David because of this, but not forever.’” Solomon therefore sought to kill Jeroboam. But Jeroboam arose and fled to Egypt, to Shishak king of Egypt, and was in Egypt until the death of Solomon.

a. I will take you, and you shall reign over all your heart desires, and you shall be king over Israel: God ordained the division of Israel and the reign of Jeroboam. He did this as a judgment – a great judgment – upon Solomon for his embrace of idolatry.

b. Then I will be with you and build for you an enduring house: This was an amazing offer. God promised to make a lasting dynasty for Jeroboam, if he would do what is right in the sight of the LORD. An obedient Jeroboam had the opportunity to establish a parallel dynasty to the House of David.

i. Both Jeroboam and David were appointed by God to follow after disobedient kings. David waited upon the LORD to make the throne clear, and God blessed his reign. Jeroboam did not wait on the LORD but made his own way to the throne, and God did not bless his reign.

c. Solomon therefore sought to kill Jeroboam: This is another startling evidence of Solomon’s decline. God specifically said this would happen after the death of Solomon, and in judgment of Solomon’s apostasy. Solomon didn’t want to hear it, so he sought to kill Jeroboam. Solomon thought he could defeat God’s will in this, but he was unsuccessful. God’s word through Ahijah proved true.

4. () Solomon’s death.

Now the rest of the acts of Solomon, all that he did, and his wisdom, are they not written in the book of the acts of Solomon? And the period that Solomon reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel was forty years. Then Solomon rested with his fathers, and was buried in the City of David his father. And Rehoboam his son reigned in his place.

a. The period that Solomon reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel was forty years: Many commentators believe that Solomon began his reign when he was about 20 years old. This means that Solomon did not live a particularly long life. This means that the promise made in 1 Kings was not fulfilled to Solomon, because of his disobedience.

i. So if you walk in My ways, to keep My statutes and My commandments, as your father David walked, then I will lengthen your days. (1 Kings )

ii. “When we consider the excess in which he lived, and the criminal passions which he must have indulged among his thousand wives, and their idolatrous and impure worship, this life was as long as could be reasonably expected.” (Clarke)

b. Then Solomon rested with his fathers: This does not necessarily mean that Solomon died a saved man. It is a familiar phrase used in 1 and 2 Kings (used 25 times) and was used of such wicked kings as Ahab (1 Kings ). It simply means that Solomon passed to the world beyond. We cannot say with certainty that he is in heaven.

i. The last look at the life of Solomon in 1 Kings leads us to believe that he died in apostasy. There is no hopeful or cheerful end to the story in this account. “If he did repent, yet the silence of the Scriptures about it in this history was not without wise reasons; as, among others, that his eternal condition being thus far left doubtful, his example might have the greater influence for the terror and caution of future offenders” (Poole).

ii. However, it may be that Solomon was shown special mercy for the sake of David his father (as in 2 Samuel , if that promise also applies to Solomon as well as the Messiah). Some also believe that Solomon wrote the Book of Ecclesiastes at the very end of his life as a renunciation of his fall into vanity.

iii. “And surely it had been better for Solomon to have been buried alive, than thus to have miscarried in his old age, and to the great dishonour of God, and offence of his people Israel.” (Trapp)

© David Guzik &#; No distribution beyond personal use without permission

Sours: https://enduringword.com/bible-commentary/1-kings/

Chapter summary kings 1 11

King Solomon had many wives and concubines. As he aged, he was not completely devoted to God. He had followed Ashtoreth, a Sidonian goddess, and Molek, an Ammonite god. So the king did evil by not following the Lord, like his father, King David, had done.

God became very angry with Solomon and told him that He would take the kingdom away from him and give it to a subordinate. But, the Lord said, because of David, He will not do this during Solomon’s lifetime. The Lord also told him that his son would only receive one tribe from the kingdom.

God raised up several adversaries against Solomon, including Hadad the Edomite, and Rezon, Eliada&#;s son. Rezon was an adversary of Israel for Solomon&#;s entire life. Jeroboam, Nebat&#;s son, also rebelled against King Solomon. He had been an official for Solomon and he was from Zeredah.

Jeroboam was put in control of all of the labor forces for the tribes of Joseph. One day Jeroboam met Ahijah, the prophet, who was dressed in a new cloak. Ahijah then tore his cloak into twelve pieces and told Jeroboam to take ten pieces because God was going to give him ten of Israel&#;s tribes.

He went on to tell Jeroboam that the Lord was taking all but one of the tribes away from King Solomon because he did not follow all of God&#;s decrees and laws. The Lord would leave one tribe for Solomon&#;s ancestors because of his faithful servant David.

The king attempted to have Jeroboam killed, but he fled to Egypt and stayed with King Shishak until Solomon passed away. King Solomon&#;s reign in Jerusalem lasted for about 40 years. After he died, he was buried with his ancestors in David, the city named after his father. His son, Rehoboam, then became the next king.

1 But king Solomon loved many strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites;

2 Of the nations concerning which the LORD said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall not go in to them, neither shall they come in unto you: for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods: Solomon clave unto these in love.

3 And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines: and his wives turned away his heart.

4 For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods: and his heart was not perfect with the LORD his God, as was the heart of David his father.

5 For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites.

6 And Solomon did evil in the sight of the LORD, and went not fully after the LORD, as did David his father.

7 Then did Solomon build an high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, in the hill that is before Jerusalem, and for Molech, the abomination of the children of Ammon.

8 And likewise did he for all his strange wives, which burnt incense and sacrificed unto their gods.

9 And the LORD was angry with Solomon, because his heart was turned from the LORD God of Israel, which had appeared unto him twice,

10 And had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods: but he kept not that which the LORD commanded.

11 Wherefore the LORD said unto Solomon, Forasmuch as this is done of thee, and thou hast not kept my covenant and my statutes, which I have commanded thee, I will surely rend the kingdom from thee, and will give it to thy servant.

12 Notwithstanding in thy days I will not do it for David thy father&#;s sake: but I will rend it out of the hand of thy son.

13 Howbeit I will not rend away all the kingdom; but will give one tribe to thy son for David my servant&#;s sake, and for Jerusalem&#;s sake which I have chosen.

14 And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite: he was of the king&#;s seed in Edom.

15 For it came to pass, when David was in Edom, and Joab the captain of the host was gone up to bury the slain, after he had smitten every male in Edom;

16 (For six months did Joab remain there with all Israel, until he had cut off every male in Edom:)

17 That Hadad fled, he and certain Edomites of his father&#;s servants with him, to go into Egypt; Hadad being yet a little child.

18 And they arose out of Midian, and came to Paran: and they took men with them out of Paran, and they came to Egypt, unto Pharaoh king of Egypt; which gave him an house, and appointed him victuals, and gave him land.

19 And Hadad found great favour in the sight of Pharaoh, so that he gave him to wife the sister of his own wife, the sister of Tahpenes the queen.

20 And the sister of Tahpenes bare him Genubath his son, whom Tahpenes weaned in Pharaoh&#;s house: and Genubath was in Pharaoh&#;s household among the sons of Pharaoh.

21 And when Hadad heard in Egypt that David slept with his fathers, and that Joab the captain of the host was dead, Hadad said to Pharaoh, Let me depart, that I may go to mine own country.

22 Then Pharaoh said unto him, But what hast thou lacked with me, that, behold, thou seekest to go to thine own country? And he answered, Nothing: howbeit let me go in any wise.

23 And God stirred him up another adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah, which fled from his lord Hadadezer king of Zobah:

24 And he gathered men unto him, and became captain over a band, when David slew them of Zobah: and they went to Damascus, and dwelt therein, and reigned in Damascus.

25 And he was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon, beside the mischief that Hadad did: and he abhorred Israel, and reigned over Syria.

26 And Jeroboam the son of Nebat, an Ephrathite of Zereda, Solomon&#;s servant, whose mother&#;s name was Zeruah, a widow woman, even he lifted up his hand against the king.

27 And this was the cause that he lifted up his hand against the king: Solomon built Millo, and repaired the breaches of the city of David his father.

28 And the man Jeroboam was a mighty man of valour: and Solomon seeing the young man that he was industrious, he made him ruler over all the charge of the house of Joseph.

29 And it came to pass at that time when Jeroboam went out of Jerusalem, that the prophet Ahijah the Shilonite found him in the way; and he had clad himself with a new garment; and they two were alone in the field:

30 And Ahijah caught the new garment that was on him, and rent it in twelve pieces:

31 And he said to Jeroboam, Take thee ten pieces: for thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel, Behold, I will rend the kingdom out of the hand of Solomon, and will give ten tribes to thee:

32 (But he shall have one tribe for my servant David&#;s sake, and for Jerusalem&#;s sake, the city which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel:)

33 Because that they have forsaken me, and have worshipped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, Chemosh the god of the Moabites, and Milcom the god of the children of Ammon, and have not walked in my ways, to do that which is right in mine eyes, and to keep my statutes and my judgments, as did David his father.

34 Howbeit I will not take the whole kingdom out of his hand: but I will make him prince all the days of his life for David my servant&#;s sake, whom I chose, because he kept my commandments and my statutes:

35 But I will take the kingdom out of his son&#;s hand, and will give it unto thee, even ten tribes.

36 And unto his son will I give one tribe, that David my servant may have a light alway before me in Jerusalem, the city which I have chosen me to put my name there.

37 And I will take thee, and thou shalt reign according to all that thy soul desireth, and shalt be king over Israel.

38 And it shall be, if thou wilt hearken unto all that I command thee, and wilt walk in my ways, and do that is right in my sight, to keep my statutes and my commandments, as David my servant did; that I will be with thee, and build thee a sure house, as I built for David, and will give Israel unto thee.

39 And I will for this afflict the seed of David, but not for ever.

40 Solomon sought therefore to kill Jeroboam. And Jeroboam arose, and fled into Egypt, unto Shishak king of Egypt, and was in Egypt until the death of Solomon.

41 And the rest of the acts of Solomon, and all that he did, and his wisdom, are they not written in the book of the acts of Solomon?

42 And the time that Solomon reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel was forty years.

43 And Solomon slept with his fathers, and was buried in the city of David his father: and Rehoboam his son reigned in his stead.

Sours: https://totallyhistory.com/1-kings-chapter/
The Wise King Solomon 1 Kings 1-11 Sunday School Lesson Resource

1 Kings 11 Bible Commentary

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Chapter Contents

Solomon's wives and concubines, His idolatry. () God's anger. () Solomon's adversaries. () Jeroboam's promotion. () The death of Solomon. ()

Commentary on 1 Kings

(Read 1 Kings )

There is not a more melancholy and astonishing instance of human depravity in the sacred Scriptures, than that here recorded. Solomon became a public worshipper of abominable idols! Probably he by degrees gave way to pride and luxury, and thus lost his relish for true wisdom. Nothing forms in itself a security against the deceitfulness and depravity of the human heart. Nor will old age cure the heart of any evil propensity. If our sinful passions are not crucified and mortified by the grace of God, they never will die of themselves, but will last even when opportunities to gratify them are taken away. Let him that thinks he stands, take heed lest he fall. We see how weak we are of ourselves, without the grace of God; let us therefore live in constant dependence on that grace. Let us watch and be sober: ours is a dangerous warfare, and in an enemy's country, while our worst foes are the traitors in our own hearts.

Commentary on 1 Kings

(Read 1 Kings )

The Lord told Solomon, it is likely by a prophet, what he must expect for his apostacy. Though we have reason to hope that he repented, and found mercy, yet the Holy Ghost did not expressly record it, but left it doubtful, as a warning to others not to sin. The guilt may be taken away, but not the reproach; that will remain. Thus it must remain uncertain to us till the day of judgment, whether or not Solomon was left to suffer the everlasting displeasure of an offended God.

Commentary on 1 Kings

(Read 1 Kings )

While Solomon kept close to God and to his duty, there was no enemy to give him uneasiness; but here we have an account of two. If against us, he can make us fear even the least, and the very grasshopper shall be a burden. Though they were moved by principles of ambition or revenge, God used them to correct Solomon.

Commentary on 1 Kings

(Read 1 Kings )

In telling the reason why God rent the kingdom from the house of Solomon, Ahijah warned Jeroboam to take heed of sinning away his preferment. Yet the house of David must be supported; out of it the Messiah would arise. Solomon sought to kill his successor. Had not he taught others, that whatever devices are in men's hearts, the counsel of the Lord shall stand? Yet he himself thinks to defeat that counsel. Jeroboam withdrew into Egypt, and was content to live in exile and obscurity for awhile, being sure of a kingdom at last. Shall not we be content, who have a better kingdom in reserve?

Commentary on 1 Kings

(Read 1 Kings )

Solomon's reign was as long as his father's, but his life was not so. Sin shortened his days. If the world, with all its advantages, could satisfy the soul, and afford real joy, Solomon would have found it so. But he was disappointed in all, and to warn us, has left this record of all earthly enjoyments, "Vanity and vexation of spirit." The New Testament declares that one greater than Solomon is come to reign over us, and to possess the throne of his father David. May we not see something of Christ's excellency faintly represented to us in this figure?

  1. Bible > Bible Commentary
  2. Matthew Henry’s Bible Commentary (concise)
  3. 1 Kings
  4. 1 Kings 11
Sours: https://www.christianity.com/bible/commentary/mhc/1-kings/11

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So we sat in silence for a while. He held my hand and fingered my fingers in his hand. And with the other hand he held me close to him and stroked me gently and gently. I was again in seventh heaven from such a continuation.



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