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United States presidential election

American election

For related races, see United States elections.

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Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Dewey/Warren, blue denotes those won by Truman/Barkley, orange denotes those won by Thurmond/Wright, including a Tennesseefaithless elector. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.


The United States presidential election was the 41st quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 2, In one of the greatest election upsets in American history, incumbent PresidentHarry S. Truman, the Democratic nominee, defeated Republican Governor Thomas E. Dewey.[2][3][4]

Truman had ascended to the presidency in April after the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Defeating attempts to drop him from the ticket, Truman won the presidential nomination at the Democratic National Convention. The Democratic convention's civil rights plank caused a walk-out by several Southern delegates, who launched a third-party "Dixiecrat" ticket led by Governor Strom Thurmond of South Carolina. The Dixiecrats hoped to win enough electoral votes to force a contingent election in the House of Representatives, where they could extract concessions from either Dewey or Truman in exchange for their support. Truman also faced a challenge from his party in the form of former Vice President Henry A. Wallace, who launched the Progressive Party and challenged Truman's confrontational Cold War policies. Dewey, who was the leader of his party's liberal eastern wing and had been the Republican presidential nominee, defeated Senator Robert A. Taft and other challengers at the Republican National Convention.

Truman's feisty campaign style energized his base of traditional Democrats, consisting of most of the white South, as well as Catholic and Jewish voters; he also fared surprisingly well with Midwestern farmers.[5] Dewey ran a low-risk campaign and largely avoided directly criticizing Truman. With the three-way split in the Democratic Party, and with Truman's low approval ratings, Truman was widely considered to be the underdog in the race, and virtually every prediction (with or without public opinion polls) indicated that Truman would be defeated by Dewey.

Defying these predictions, Truman won the election with electoral votes to Dewey's Truman also won % of the popular vote compared to Dewey's %, while the third party candidacies of Thurmond and Wallace each won less than 3% of the popular vote, with Thurmond carrying four southern states. Truman's surprise victory was the fifth consecutive presidential win for the Democratic Party, the longest winning streak for either party since the election. With simultaneous success in the congressional elections, the Democrats regained control of both houses of Congress, which they had lost in Thus, Truman's election confirmed the Democratic Party's status as the nation's majority party.[6]

Nominations[edit]

Democratic Party nomination[edit]

Main article: Democratic National Convention

Further information: Harry S. Truman presidential campaign

On July 12, the Democratic National Convention convened in Philadelphia in the same arena where the Republicans had met a few weeks earlier. Spirits were low; the Republicans had taken control of both houses of the United States Congress and a majority of state governorships during the mid-term elections, and the public opinion polls showed Truman trailing Republican nominee Dewey, sometimes by double digits. Furthermore, some liberal Democrats had joined Henry A. Wallace's new Progressive Party, and party leaders feared that Wallace would take enough votes from Truman to give the large Northern and Midwestern states to the Republicans. Conservatives dominated the party in the South, and they were angered by the growing voice of labor unions and black voters in the party outside the South. The hope that Truman would reverse course had faded by , when he vetoed the Taft-Hartley Law, which would have helped control union power. Truman's appointment of a liberal civil rights commission convinced Southern conservatives that to re-establish their voice they had to threaten third-party action to defeat Truman in [7] Truman was aware of his unpopularity. In July , he privately offered to be Eisenhower's running mate on the Democratic ticket if MacArthur won the Republican nomination, an offer which Eisenhower declined. Truman's offer to Eisenhower did not become public knowledge during the campaign.[8]

As a result of Truman's low standing in the polls, several Democratic party bosses began working to "dump" Truman and nominate a more popular candidate. Among the leaders of this movement were Jacob Arvey, the head of the powerful Cook County (Chicago) Democratic organization; Frank Hague, the boss of New Jersey; James Roosevelt, the eldest son of former President Franklin D. Roosevelt; and liberal Senator Claude Pepper from Florida. The rebels hoped to draft Eisenhower as the Democratic presidential candidate. On July 10, Eisenhower officially refused to be a candidate. There was then an attempt to put forward Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas, but Douglas also declared that he would not be a presidential candidate. Finally, Senator Pepper declared his intention to challenge Truman for the presidential nomination. His candidacy collapsed when the liberal Americans for Democratic Action and the Congress of Industrial Organizations withheld their support, partly due to concerns over Pepper's attacks on Truman's foreign policy decisions regarding the Soviet Union. As a result of the refusal by most of the dump-Truman delegates to support him, Pepper withdrew his candidacy for the nomination on July Lacking a candidate acceptable to all sides, the leaders of the dump-Truman movement reluctantly agreed to support Truman for the nomination.[citation needed]

Democratic Convention[edit]

At the Democratic Convention, Truman initially proposed a civil rights plank to the party platform that moderated the strong vocal support for civil rights that he had expressed at the NAACP convention in , and to Congress in February This proposal disappointed Northern and Western liberals who wanted more swift and sweeping reforms in civil rights, but it also failed to placate Southern conservatives, and both sides decided to present their own amendments and proposals to Truman's civil rights plank.[9][10] Former Texas Governor Dan Moody proposed a plank that supported the status quo of states' rights; a similar but shorter proposal was made by Cecil Sims of the Tennessee delegation.[11] On the liberal side, Wisconsin Representative Andrew Biemiller proposed a strong civil rights plank which was more explicit and direct in its language than Truman's convention proposal.[12] Minneapolis Mayor Hubert Humphrey led the support for the Biemiller plank. In his speech to the convention, Humphrey memorably stated that "the time has come for the Democratic Party to get out of the shadow of states' rights and walk forthrightly into the bright sunshine of human rights!"[13]

Truman and his staff knew it was highly likely that any civil rights plank would lead to Southern delegates staging a walk-out in protest, but Truman believed that civil rights was an important moral cause and ultimately abandoned his advisers' attempts to "soften the approach" with the moderate plank; so the President supported and defended the "Crackpot" Biemiller plank, which passed by votes to [14] It also received strong support from many of the big-city party bosses, most of whom felt that the civil rights platform would encourage the growing black population in their cities to vote for the Democrats.[15] The passage of the civil rights platform caused some three dozen Southern delegates, led by South Carolina Governor Strom Thurmond, to walk out of the convention. The Southern delegates who remained nominated Senator Richard Russell Jr. from Georgia for the Democratic nomination as a rebuke to Truman. Nonetheless, Democratic delegates voted for Truman as the Democratic nominee, while Russell received only votes, all from the South. Truman's first choice for his running mate was Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas, hoping that it might make the ticket more appealing to liberals. Douglas refused the nomination. Needing an alternative, Truman then selected Senator Alben W. Barkley from Kentucky, who had delivered the convention's keynote address, as his running mate, with this nomination being made by acclamation.[16]

Truman gave a fighting acceptance speech, stating that "Senator Barkley and I will win this election and make the Republicans like it - don't you forget it!We will do that because they are wrong and we are right."[17] He claimed that the Republican Party had, "ever since its inceptionbeen under the control of special privilege; and they have completely proved it in the Eightieth Congress."[18] At the end of the speech, the "delegates rose to their feet and cheered loudly for two minutesfor a moment Truman had created the illusion – few regarded it as more than an illusion – that the Democrats had a fighting chance in November."[19]

Republican Party nomination[edit]

Main article: Republican Party presidential primaries,

Further information: Republican National Convention

For both Republicans and Democrats, there was a boom for General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the most popular general of World War II and a favorite in the polls. Unlike the latter movement within the Democratic Party, however, the Republican draft movement came largely from the grassroots of the party. By January 23, , the grassroots movement had successfully entered Eisenhower's name into every state holding a Republican presidential primary, and polls gave him a significant lead against all other contenders. With the first state primary approaching, Eisenhower was forced to make a quick decision. Stating that soldiers should keep out of politics, Eisenhower declined to run and requested that the grassroots draft movement cease its activities. After a number of failed efforts to get Eisenhower to reconsider, the organization disbanded, with the majority of its leadership endorsing the presidential campaign of the former Governor of Minnesota, Harold Stassen. With Eisenhower refusing to run, the contest for the Republican nomination was between Stassen, New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey, Senator Robert A. Taft from Ohio, California Governor Earl Warren, General Douglas MacArthur, and Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg from Michigan, the senior Republican in the Senate. Dewey, who had been the Republican nominee in , was regarded as the frontrunner when the primaries began. Dewey was the acknowledged leader of the Republican Party's Eastern Establishment. In he had been re-elected governor of New York by the largest margin in state history. Dewey's handicap was that many Republicans disliked him on a personal level; he often struck observers as cold, stiff, and calculating. Taft was the leader of the Republican Party's conservative wing, which was strongest in the Midwest and parts of the South. Taft called for abolishing many New Deal welfare programs, which he felt were harmful to business interests, and he was skeptical of American involvement in foreign alliances such as the United Nations. Taft had two major weaknesses: He was a plodding, dull campaigner, and he was viewed by most party leaders as being too conservative and controversial to win a presidential election.[20]

Both Vandenberg and Warren were highly popular in their home states, but each refused to campaign in the primaries, which limited their chances of winning the nomination. Their supporters, however, hoped that in the event of a Dewey-Taft-Stassen deadlock, the convention would turn to their man as a compromise candidate. General MacArthur, the famous war hero, was especially popular among conservatives. Since he was serving in Japan as the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers occupying that nation, he was unable to campaign for the nomination. He did make it known, however, that he would accept the GOP nomination if it were offered to him, and some conservative Republicans hoped that by winning a primary contest he could prove his popularity with voters. They chose to enter his name in the Wisconsin primary.[21]

The "surprise" candidate of was Stassen, a liberal from Minnesota.[22] In , Stassen had been elected governor of Minnesota at the age of 31; he resigned as governor in to serve in the wartime Navy. In he served on the committee that created the United Nations. Stassen was widely regarded as the most liberal of the Republican candidates, yet during the primaries he was criticized for being vague on many issues. Stassen stunned Dewey and MacArthur in the Wisconsin primary; Stassen's surprise victory virtually eliminated General MacArthur, whose supporters had made a major effort on his behalf. Stassen defeated Dewey again in the Nebraska primary, thus making him the new frontrunner. He then made the strategic mistake of trying to beat Taft in Ohio, Taft's home state. Stassen believed that if he could defeat Taft in his home state, Taft would be forced to quit the race and most of Taft's delegates would support him instead of Dewey. Taft defeated Stassen in his native Ohio, and Stassen earned the hostility of the party's conservatives. Even so, Stassen was still leading Dewey in the polls for the upcoming Oregon primary. Dewey, however, realized that losing another primary would end his chances at the nomination, and he decided to make an all-out effort in Oregon.[23]

In April , Dewey sent Paul Lockwood, one of his top aides, to build a strong grassroots organization in the state. Working with $, sent by Dewey's powerful New York political organization (three times the previous record spent in an Oregon primary), Lockwood paid "for billboards, hundreds of sixty-second radio spots on every station in the state, and half-hour broadcasts each noonThe daily Portland Oregonian carried five Dewey advertisements a day."[24] Dewey also extensively campaigned in Oregon, spending three weeks in the state. He "invaded every hamlet, no matter how isolated, speaking at rural crossroads and shaking hands in hamburger stands. One journalist commented that Dewey was the greatest explorer of Oregon since Lewis and Clark."[25]

Dewey also agreed to debate Stassen in Oregon on national radio. Held on May 17, , it was the first-ever radio debate between presidential candidates. The sole issue of the debate concerned whether to outlaw the Communist Party of the United States. Stassen, despite his liberal reputation, argued in favor of outlawing the party, stating his belief that a network of Soviet-directed Communist spies "within the U.S. demanded immediate, and punitive, responseWhy did Dewey oppose such a ban? Stassen wanted to know."[26] "We must not coddle Communism with legality", Stassen insisted. Dewey - while criticizing Communist totalitarianism and Soviet actions in the Cold War - still forcefully argued against banning the Communist Party: "This outlawing idea is nothing newfor thousands of years despots have tortured, imprisoned, killed, and exiled their opponents, and their governments have always fallen into the dust."[27] Dewey ended his turn in the debate by stating that "I am unalterably, wholeheartedly, and unswervingly against any scheme to write laws outlawing people because of their religious, political, social, or economic ideas. I am against it because it is a violation of the Constitution of the United States and the Bill of RightsI am against it because I know from a great many years of experience in law enforcement that the proposal wouldn't work. Stripped to its naked essentialsthis is nothing but the method of Hitler and Stalin. It is thought controlan attempt to beat down ideas with a club. It is a surrender of everything we believe in."[27] Surveys showed that from 40 to 80 million people nationwide listened to the debate, and most observers rated Dewey as the winner.[28] Four days after the debate, Dewey defeated Stassen in the Oregon primary.[29] From this point forward, the New York governor had the momentum he needed to win his party's second nomination.[30]

Republican Convention[edit]

The Republican National Convention was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was the first presidential convention to be shown on national television. At this time, there were 27 television stations in full operation in the U.S. and an estimated , TV sets in the whole country. As the convention opened, Dewey was believed to have a large lead in the delegate count.[31] His campaign managers, such as Herbert Brownell Jr., Edwin Jaeckle, and J. Russell Sprague, were "as skillful a group of operators as ever manipulated a conventionit was said at the convention that the Dewey forces "could have won even with Taft" as their candidate."[32] His main opponent, Senator Taft, was hobbled by an ineffective campaign team that one writer called "bumblers", and another historian noted that Taft's campaign manager, Ohio Congressman Clarence J. Brown, "seemed no match for Herbert Brownellwhile the Dewey forces were busy flattering delegates and hinting at promises of patronage, Brown was still worrying about such mundane matters as hotel rooms and seats in the gallery for his friends."[33]

Taft and Stassen, Dewey's leading opponents, met in Taft's hotel suite to plan a "stop-Dewey" movement. A key obstacle soon developed, however, as both men refused to unite behind a single candidate to oppose Dewey: "The essence of their impasse was simple. Neither Stassen nor Taft hated Dewey enough to withdraw [in favor of the other], and neither man thought he could get his delegates to follow if he did."[33] Instead, both Taft and Stassen, along with Senator Vandenberg, simply agreed to try to hold their own delegates in the hopes of preventing Dewey from obtaining a majority. This proved to be futile, as Dewey's efficient campaign team methodically gathered the remaining delegates they needed to win the nomination. Stassen tried to contact General Eisenhower to ask him to reconsider becoming a candidate, but Eisenhower "could not be reached."[34] After the second round of balloting, Dewey was only 33 votes short of victory. Taft then called Stassen and urged him to withdraw from the race and endorse him as Dewey's main opponent. When Stassen refused, Taft wrote a concession statement and had it read to the convention at the start of the third ballot; at this point the other candidates also dropped out, and Dewey was then nominated unanimously by acclamation.[35]

Dewey's campaign team originally wanted Illinois Governor Dwight Green to be his running mate, but the opposition of Colonel Robert R. McCormick, the powerful publisher of the Chicago Tribune, nixed his chances.[35] According to journalist Jules Abels, Dewey managers Brownell, Sprague, and Jaeckle then appeared to offer the vice-presidential nomination to influential Indiana Congressman Charles Halleck, in exchange for Halleck delivering the entire Indiana delegation to Dewey.[35] Halleck did so, but Dewey, who had not been present at the meeting between his managers and Halleck, decided to reject his candidacy, telling his aides "Halleck won't do." After Dewey told Halleck of his decision, Halleck "was first speechless with disbelief and then overcome with emotion." He told Dewey that "you're running out on the Eightieth Congress, and you'll be sorry!"[36] Abels wrote that Dewey's decision to deny Halleck the vice-presidential bid "may have been a fateful oneHalleck with his forceful personality might have changed the tone of the Dewey campaign, and certainly the issue of the record of the GOP-controlled Eightieth Congress would have to have been met heads on."[37] Instead, Dewey chose popular governor (and future Chief Justice) Earl Warren of California as his running mate. Following the convention, most political experts in the news media rated the Republican ticket as an almost-certain winner over the Democrats.[38]

Progressive Party nomination[edit]

Meanwhile, the Democratic Party fragmented. A new Progressive Party (the name had been used earlier by Theodore Roosevelt in and Robert M. La Follette in ) was created afresh in , with the nomination of Henry A. Wallace, who had served as Secretary of Agriculture, Vice President of the United States, and Secretary of Commerce under Franklin D. Roosevelt. In , President Truman had fired Wallace as Secretary of Commerce when Wallace publicly opposed Truman's firm moves to counter the Soviet Union in the Cold War. Wallace's platform opposed the Cold War policies of President Truman, including the Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine. The Progressives proposed stronger government regulation and control of Big Business. They also campaigned to end discrimination against blacks and women, backed a minimum wage, and called for the elimination of the House Un-American Activities Committee, which was investigating the issue of communist spies within the U.S. government and labor unions. Wallace and his supporters believed that the committee was violating the civil liberties of government workers and labor unions. The Progressives also generated a great deal of controversy because of the widespread belief that they were secretly controlled by Communists who were more loyal to the Soviet Union than the United States. Wallace himself denied being a Communist, but he repeatedly refused to disavow their support and, at one point, was quoted as saying that the "Communists are the closest thing to the early Christian martyrs."[39]Walter Reuther, the president of the influential United Auto Workers union, strongly opposed Wallace's candidacy, stating that "people who are not sympathetic with democracy in America are influencing him."[40]Philip Murray, the president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), stated in April that "the Communist Party is directly responsible for the creation of the third party [Progressive Party] in the United States."[40]

Wallace was also hurt when Westbrook Pegler, a prominent conservative newspaper columnist, revealed that Wallace as vice president had written coded letters discussing prominent politicians such as Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill to his controversial Russian New Age spiritual guruNicholas Roerich; the letters were nicknamed the "Guru letters." In his book Out of the Jaws of Victory, the journalist Jules Abels wrote: "Personalities were referred to by symbolic titles—Roosevelt was 'The Flaming One', Churchill 'The Roaring Lion', and Cordell Hull 'The Sour One' some of the letters were signed 'Wallace', others 'Galahad'", the name that Roerich had assigned Wallace in his cult.[41] This revelation—including direct quotes from the letters—led to much ridicule of Wallace in the national press. The Progressive Party Convention, which was also held in Philadelphia, was a highly contentious affair; several famous newspaper journalists, such as H. L. Mencken and Dorothy Thompson, publicly accused the Progressives of being covertly controlled by Communists. The party's platform was drafted by Lee Pressman, the convention secretary; he later admitted that he had been a member of the Communist party.[42]John Abt served as legal counsel to the convention's permanent chairman, Albert Fitzgerald; he also testified years later that he was a Communist.[42]Rexford Tugwell, a prominent liberal in President Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal, served as the Chairman of the party's platform committee. He became convinced that the party was being manipulated by Communists, and was "so heartsick about Communist infiltration of the party that he discussed . . . with his wife disaffiliating [from the party] the night before the convention" started.[43] Tugwell later did disassociate himself from the Progressive Party and did not participate in Wallace's fall campaign.[42] A number of other Progressive Party delegates and supporters would quit the party in protest over what they perceived as the undue influence Communists exerted over Wallace, including the prominent American socialist Norman Thomas. In the fall, Thomas would run as the Socialist Party presidential candidate to offer liberals a non-Communist alternative to Wallace.[44]

Senator Glen H. Taylor from Idaho, an eccentric figure who was known as a "singing cowboy" and who had ridden his horse "Nugget" up the steps of the United States Capitol after winning election to the Senate in , was named as Wallace's running mate. Although he was a member of the Democratic Party, Taylor accepted the Progressive Party's vice-presidential nomination, saying "I am not leaving the Democratic Party. It left me. Wall Street and the military have taken over the Democratic Party."[45] After receiving the vice-presidential nomination, Taylor told reporters that there was a difference between "pink" Communists and "red" Communists.[46] Taylor claimed that "pink" Communists would support the Wallace-Taylor ticket because they believed in a "peaceful revolution" to turn the government to left-wing beliefs, but "red" Communists would support the Republican ticket in the belief that they would cause another Great Depression, which would give Communists the chance to take over the government.[47]

In the fall campaign the Wallace-Taylor ticket made a Southern tour, where both Wallace and Taylor insisted on speaking to racially integrated audiences, in defiance of Southern custom and law at the time. In several North Carolina cities Wallace was hit by a total of "twenty-seven eggs, thirty-seven tomatoes, six peaches, and two lemons."[48] When he left the state he announced: "As Jesus Christ said, if at any time they will not listen to you willingly, then shake the dust off from your feet and go elsewhere."[49] He ate only in unsegregated restaurants, traveled with a black secretary, and in Mississippi had to be escorted by police for protection. His aide Clark Foreman admitted that Wallace wanted to stir up controversy for the publicity it would receive in more liberal areas in the North and West.[50] As the campaign progressed, however, Wallace's crowds thinned and his standing in the polls dropped. Wallace was hurt by the successful effort of labor unions to keep their members in the Democratic column, and by controversial statements from Progressives supporting "appeasement with Russia."[51] Wallace himself attacked Winston Churchill as a "racist" and "imperialist", and Senator Taylor earned criticism for a speech in which he claimed that the "Nazis are running the US government. So why should Russia make peace with them? If I were a Russian . . . I would not agree to anything . . . we are aggressively preparing for war."[52]

The Wallace-Taylor ticket finished in fourth place in the election, winning 1,, votes (%). This was slightly less than the States' Rights Party, but the Progressive Party received no electoral votes.[53]

States' Rights Democratic Party nomination[edit]

In some southern states, Strom Thurmond had managed to obtain the Democratic Party line, but in the majority he had to run under the label of the States' Rights Democratic Party. Only in those states in which he ran under the standard Democratic Party label did he win, his best performance as a third-party candidate being a distant second in Georgia.

Southern Democrats had become increasingly disturbed over President Truman's support of civil rights, particularly following his executive order racially integrating the U.S. armed forces and a civil rights message he sent to Congress in February At the Southern Governor's Conference in Wakulla Springs, Florida, on February 6, Mississippi Governor Fielding Wright proposed the formation of a new third party to protect racial segregation in the South. On May 10, , the governors of the eleven states of the former Confederacy, along with other high-ranking Southern officials, met in Jackson, Mississippi, to discuss their concerns about the growing civil rights movement within the Democratic Party. At the meeting, South Carolina Governor Strom Thurmond criticized President Truman for his civil rights agenda, and the governors discussed ways to oppose it.[55]

The Southern Democrats who had walked out of the Democratic National Convention to protest the civil rights platform approved by the convention, and supported by Truman, promptly met at Municipal Auditorium in Birmingham, Alabama, on July 17, , and formed yet another political party, which they named the States' Rights Democratic Party. More commonly known as the "Dixiecrats", the party's main goal was continuing the policy of racial segregation in the South and the Jim Crow laws that sustained it. Governor Thurmond, who had led the walkout, became the party's presidential nominee after the convention's initial favorite, Arkansas Governor Benjamin Laney, withdrew his name from consideration. Governor Wright of Mississippi received the vice-presidential nomination. The Dixiecrats had no chance of winning the election themselves, since they could not get on the ballot in enough states to win the necessary electoral votes. Their strategy was to take enough Southern states from Truman to force the election into the United States House of Representatives under the provisions of the Twelfth Amendment, where they could then extract concessions from either Truman or Dewey on racial issues in exchange for their support. Even if Dewey won the election outright, the Dixiecrats hoped that their defection would show that the Democratic Party needed Southern support in order to win national elections, and that this fact would weaken the pro-civil rights movement among Northern and Western Democrats. The Dixiecrats were weakened, however, when most Southern Democratic leaders (such as Governor Herman Talmadge of Georgia and "Boss" E. H. Crump from Tennessee) refused to support the party. Despite being an incumbent president, Truman was not placed on the ballot in Alabama.[56]

In the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and South Carolina, the party was able to be labeled as the main Democratic Party ticket on the local ballots on election night.[57] Outside of these four states, it was only listed as a third-party ticket.[57]

Socialist Party nomination[edit]

Socialist Party ticket
Norman Thomas Tucker P. Smith
for Presidentfor Vice President
Norman Thomas jpg
Tucker P Smith.jpg
Socialist Party Chairman
(–)
Economics professor

Although it had initially appeared that the Socialist Party would refrain from nominating its own candidate and instead endorse Wallace's run, policy differences and Wallace's refusal to publicly repudiate the support of communists caused them to break with the Progressive Party and nominate their own ticket. The party therefore nominated Norman Thomas, a five-time Socialist nominee and the former party chairman, as president, and Tucker P. Smith, an economics professor, as vice president.

Christian Nationalist Party nomination[edit]

This Party nominated Gerald L. K. Smith, a leader of the Share Our Wealth movement during the Great Depression, founder of the Christian Nationalist Crusade, and founder of the America First Party () for which he was presidential candidate ().[58][59]

General election[edit]

Fall campaign[edit]

Dewey during a campaign tour in New York

Given Truman's sinking popularity and the seemingly fatal three-way split in the Democratic Party, Dewey appeared unbeatable to the point where top Republicans believed that all their candidate had to do to win was to avoid major mistakes. Following this advice, Dewey carefully avoided risks and spoke in platitudes, avoiding controversial issues, and remained vague on what he planned to do as president, with speech after speech being nonpartisan and also filled with optimistic assertions or empty statements of the obvious, including the famous quote: "You know that your future is still ahead of you." An editorial in the Louisville Courier-Journal summed it up:

No presidential candidate in the future will be so inept that four of his major speeches can be boiled down to these historic four sentences: Agriculture is important. Our rivers are full of fish. You cannot have freedom without liberty. Our future lies ahead.[60]

Another writer noted the "one broad issue that Dewey set forth in the campaign was unitybut [he] was oversold on an issue which had no visceral appeal to the average American. It was hard to understand what Dewey was driving at. Sometimes it seemed that he was asking Americans to achieve unity by being united behind him."[61] On the other hand, Truman's campaign strategist, Clark Clifford, said that Truman's campaign was "pitched to four distinct interest groups - labor, the farmer, the Negro, and the consumer. Every move had these four interest groups in mind."[62] Since he was trailing in the polls, Truman decided to adopt a slashing, no-holds-barred campaign. He ridiculed Dewey by name, criticized Dewey's refusal to address specific issues, and scornfully targeted the Republican-controlled 80th Congress with a wave of relentless and blistering partisan assaults. Truman claimed that "the Communists are rooting for a GOP victory because they know it would bring on another Great Depression."[63] In several speeches, Truman stated that "GOP" actually stood for "gluttons of privilege", and said that Republicans were "princes of privilege" and "bloodsuckers with offices on Wall Street."[64] He told one audience that "The Republicans have begun to nail the American consumer to the wall with spikes of greed."[65] At the National Plowing Contest in Dexter, Iowa, Truman told 80, farmers in attendance that "this Republican Congress has already stuck a pitchfork in the farmer's back" to rapturous applause.[65]

Clifford K. Berryman's editorial cartoon of October 19, , shows the consensus of experts in mid-October

Truman nicknamed the Republican-controlled Congress as the "worst", "do-nothing" Congress, a remark which brought strong criticism from Republican Congressional leaders (such as Taft), but no comment from Dewey. In fact, Dewey rarely mentioned Truman's name during the campaign, which fit into his strategy of appearing to be above petty partisan politics. Under Dewey's leadership, the Republicans had enacted a platform at their convention that called for expanding Social Security, more funding for public housing, civil rights legislation, and promotion of health and education by the federal government. These positions were unacceptable to the conservative Congressional Republican leadership; Truman exploited this rift in the opposing party by calling a special session of Congress on "Turnip Day" (referring to an old piece of Missouri folklore about planting turnips in late July) and daring the Republican Congressional leadership to pass its own platform. The 80th Congress played into Truman's hands, delivering very little in the way of substantive legislation during this time. Truman simply ignored the fact that Dewey's policies were considerably more liberal than most of his fellow Republicans, and instead concentrated his fire against what he characterized as the conservative, obstructionist tendencies of the unpopular 80th Congress. Truman toured much of the nation with his fiery rhetoric, playing to large, enthusiastic crowds. "Give 'em hell, Harry" was a popular slogan shouted out at stop after stop along the tour. The polls and the pundits held that Dewey's lead was insurmountable and that Truman's efforts were for naught. Truman's own staff considered the campaign a last hurrah.[citation needed] Even Truman's own wife, Bess, had private doubts that her husband could win; the only person who appears to have considered Truman's campaign to be winnable was the president himself, who confidently predicted victory to anyone who would listen to him. Near the end of the campaign, Truman privately wrote a state-by-state electoral vote prediction and gave it to his aide, George Elsey. Truman believed that he would win the election with electoral votes, to for Dewey, 42 for Thurmond, and 37 marked doubtful (he accidentally left out four electoral votes).[66]

In the final weeks of the campaign, American movie theaters agreed to play two short newsreel-like campaign films in support of the two major-party candidates: both had been created by its respective campaign organization. The Dewey film, shot professionally on an impressive budget, featured very high production values but somehow reinforced an image of the New York governor as cautious and distant. On the other hand, the Truman film, hastily assembled on virtually no budget by the perpetually cash-short Truman campaign, relied heavily on public-domain and newsreel footage of the president taking part in major world events and signing important legislation. Perhaps unintentionally, the Truman film visually reinforced an image of him as engaged and decisive. Years later, historian David McCullough cited the expensive but lackluster Dewey film and the far cheaper but more effective Truman film as important factors in determining the preferences of undecided voters. As the campaign drew to a close, the polls showed Truman was gaining: though Truman lost all nine of the Gallup Poll's post-convention surveys, Dewey's Gallup lead dropped from 17 points in late September to nine points in mid-October and just five points by the end of the month, just above the poll's margin of error. Although Truman was gaining momentum, most political analysts were reluctant to break with the conventional wisdom and say that a Truman victory was a serious possibility. After , pollsters would constantly test voters through election day.[citation needed]

On September 9, nearly two months before election day, pollster Elmo Roper announced "Thomas E. Dewey is almost as good as elected. [] I can think of nothing duller or more intellectually barren than acting like a sports announcer who feels he must pretend he is witnessing a neck-and-neck race."[67] Roper stopped polling voters until the final week before the election, when he took another poll. It showed "a slight shift to Truman; it still gave Dewey a heavy lead, however, so he decided not to hedge his bet."[68] One poll showing strong Truman support in the rural Midwest was sponsored by the Staley Milling Company, who "polled farmers by giving them a choice of a donkey or an elephant on chicken feed sacks. When the results among 20, farmers showed up as fifty-four percent to forty-six percent for the donkey, the poll was abandoned."[69]

When Dewey considered adopting a more aggressive stance after noticing that his crowds were dwindling, Herbert Brownell contacted 90 GOP state committeemen and committeewomen in all 48 states. With one exception, they "urged [Dewey] to press forward on the high road" his campaign had taken and to continue to ignore Truman's attacks.[70] The sole exception was Kansas committeeman Harry Darby, who warned Dewey and his managers "that farmers were in a mutinous mood" and recommended that Dewey take a tougher and more aggressive stance. However, given that all the polls still showed Dewey leading, and no other committee member supported Darby, his advice was rejected.[70]

In the campaign's final days, many newspapers, magazines, and political pundits were so confident of Dewey's impending victory they wrote articles to be printed the morning after the election speculating about Dewey's Presidency: Life magazine printed a large photo in its final edition before the election, entitled "Our Next President Rides by Ferryboat over San Francisco Bay," that showed Dewey and his staff riding across the city's harbor.[71]Newsweek polled fifty experts, with all fifty predicting a Dewey win.[71] Several well-known and influential newspaper columnists, such as Drew Pearson and Joseph Alsop, wrote columns to be printed the morning after the election speculating about Dewey's possible choices for his cabinet; the day before the election, Pearson wrote that any chance of a Truman victory was "impossible," and his column printed the day after the election stated that Pearson had "surveyed the closely-knit group around Tom Dewey who will take over the White House 86 days from now."[71]

Walter Winchell reported that gambling odds were 15 to 1 against Truman. More than newspapers, accounting for over 78% of the nation's total circulation, endorsed Dewey. Truman picked up endorsements, accounting for just 10% of America's newspaper readership, being surpassed by Thurmond, who got the remaining 12% from many Southern papers. Alistair Cooke, the distinguished writer for the Manchester Guardian newspaper in the United Kingdom, published an article on the day of the election entitled "Harry S. Truman: A Study of a Failure."[71] For its television coverage, NBC News had constructed a large cardboard model of the White House containing two elephants that would pop out when NBC announced Dewey's victory; since Truman's defeat was considered certain, no donkeys were placed in the White House model.[72]

As Truman made his way to his hometown of Independence, Missouri, to await the election returns, some among his inner circle had already accepted other jobs, and not a single reporter traveling on his campaign train thought that he would win,[70] while a number of prominent Republicans, anticipating serving in a Dewey Presidency, had already bought homes in Washington.[73]

Results[edit]

On election night, Dewey, his family, and campaign staff confidently gathered in the Roosevelt Hotel in New York City to await the returns.[74] Truman, aided by the Secret Service, sneaked away from reporters covering him in Kansas City and rode to nearby Excelsior Springs, Missouri. There, he took a room in the historic Elms Hotel, had dinner and a Turkish bath, and went to sleep.[75] As the votes came in, Truman took an early lead that he never lost. The leading radio commentators, such as H. V. Kaltenborn of NBC, still confidently predicted that once the "late returns" came in Dewey would overcome Truman's lead and win. At midnight, Truman awoke and turned on the radio in his room; he heard Kaltenborn announce that while Truman was still ahead in the popular vote, he could not possibly win. At 4 a.m., Truman awoke again and heard on the radio that his popular-vote lead was now nearly two million votes, and that he was well ahead in the electoral vote.[75] He told the Secret Service agents guarding him to drive him back to Kansas City, "because it looks as if we're in for another four years."[76] For the rest of his life, Truman would gleefully mimic Kaltenborn's pedantic voice predicting his defeat throughout that election night. Dewey, meanwhile, realized that he was in trouble when early returns from New England and New York showed him running well behind his expected vote total. He stayed up for the rest of the night and early morning analyzing the votes as they came in, and by &#;a.m., he was convinced he had lost; at &#;a.m., he sent a gracious telegram of concession to Truman.[77]

The pro-Republican Chicago Daily Tribune, was so certain of Dewey's victory that on Tuesday afternoon, before any polls closed, it printed "DEWEY DEFEATS TRUMAN" as its banner headline for the following day. Part of the reason Truman's victory came as such a shock was because of uncorrected flaws in the emerging craft of public opinion polling. According to historian William Manchester, "many professional pollstersbelieved in what some had come to call Farley's Law."[68] James Farley, President Franklin Roosevelt's successful campaign manager in and , had stated that, in his opinion, the great majority of voters decided which candidate to support during the political conventions. The fall campaigns, Farley believed, were simply "ineffective carnivals" that swayed few voters.[68] In many pollsters, relying on Farley's Law, believed that the election was effectively over after the Republican and Democratic Conventions, and they discounted the impact of Truman's campaigning that fall.[68]

Manchester noted that "Gallup's September 24 report foresaw % for Dewey to 38% for Truman. His last column, appearing in the Sunday papers two days before the election, showed Truman gaining sharply – to 44 percent – and the interviews on which it was based had been conducted two weeks earlier. The national mood was shifting daily, almost hourly."[68] After the election, a study by the University of Michigan revealed that "14% of Truman's voters, or 3,,, had decided to vote for him in the last fortnight of the campaign."[78] Gallup and Roper also did an analysis of the votes, they "learned that one voter in every seven (6,,), made up his mind in the last two weeks before the election. Of these, 75 percent picked Truman", which was more than his margin of victory over Dewey.[78] "Using either the Michigan figures or Gallup-Roper's, one finds that some 3,, fence-sitters determined the outcome of the race in its closing days – when Dewey's instincts were urging him to adopt Truman's hell-for-leather style and slug it out with him, and when he didn't because all the experts told him he shouldn't."[78]

The key states in the election were Ohio, California, and Illinois. Truman won each of these states by less than 1%; they gave him a total of 78 electoral votes. Had Dewey carried all three states - which would have required a shift of just 29, votes - he would have won the election in the Electoral College despite losing the popular vote by million votes (or %). If Dewey had won any two of the three, no nominee would have reached the electoral votes required for election, and the Dixiecrats would have succeeded in their goal of forcing the election into the House of Representatives.

The extreme closeness of the vote in these three states was the major reason why Dewey waited until late on the morning of November 3 to concede defeat. Aside from Ohio, California, and Illinois, Truman carried Idaho by almost as narrow a margin, and Dewey himself countered with similarly narrow victories in New York (the nation's largest electoral prize at the time), his birth state of Michigan, and Maryland. But this was too little to give him the election. Dewey would always believe that he lost the election because he lost the rural vote in the Midwest, which he had won in (note the Kaltenborn predictions that Truman would joyously mock had taken for granted that the "country vote" would go to Dewey).[79]

Journalist Sidney Lubell found in his post survey of voters that Truman, not Dewey, seemed the safer, more conservative candidate to the "new middle class" that had developed over the previous 20 years. He wrote that "to an appreciable part of the electorate, the Democrats had replaced the Republicans as the party of prosperity" during and after the war. Lubell quoted a man who, when asked why he did not vote Republican after moving to the suburbs, answered "I own a nice home, have a new car and am much better off than my parents were. I've been a Democrat all my life. Why should I change?" Dewey's promise of a "great house cleaning" in Washington worried an Iowa minister who wanted to retain farm subsidies for parishioners; worried about the consequences of another depression, he voted Democratic for the first time in his church's history. Truman received a record number of Catholic votes, exceeding even the Catholic support of Al Smith in , in part because Wallace drew leftists away from the Democrats.[80]

Another reason for Dewey's surprise defeat was his complacent, distant approach to the campaign, and his failure to respond to Truman's attacks. Journalist Jules Abels wrote that "the election was not thrown away by indifference or lack of effort. Preparation and more preparation had always been the distinguishing characteristic of Dewey and his team throughout his careerThe truth is that Dewey's campaign was the result not of careless, but too careful and painstaking, calculation. The Dewey campaign was frozen into inertia not because it had been underthought, but because it had been overthought."[81]

Other possible factors for Truman's victory included his aggressive, populist campaign style; broad public approval of Truman's foreign policy, notably the Berlin Airlift of that year; and widespread dissatisfaction with the institution Truman labeled as the "do-nothing, good-for-nothing 80th Republican Congress." In addition, after suffering a relatively severe recession in and (in which real GDP dropped by 12% and inflation went over 15%), the economy began recovering throughout The year was a banner year for the Democrats, as they not only retained the presidency but also recaptured both houses of Congress. It was also an unprecedented fifth consecutive presidential victory for the party, thus continuing what remains the only winning streak of more than two presidential elections by the Democratic Party since the Civil War. Since , there has been only one streak of three consecutive presidential victories by any party (in that case, by the Republicans). The two largest third parties did not hurt Truman nearly as much as expected, as Thurmond's Dixiecrats carried only four Southern states, fewer than predicted. The civil rights platform helped Truman win large majorities among black voters in the populous Northern and Midwestern states, and may well have made the difference for Truman in states such as Illinois and Ohio. Wallace's Progressives received only % of the national popular vote, well below their expected vote total and slightly less than the Dixiecrats, and Wallace did not take as many liberal votes from Truman as many political pundits had predicted. Some analysts, including author Zachary Karabell, have even argued that the separate candidacies of Wallace and Thurmond were beneficial to Truman by removing the separate taints of communism and racism from the Democratic Party.[citation needed]

This was the last election until in which the Democrats won Arizona and the last until in which they won California, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Iowa, Montana, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. It was also the last election until in which South Carolina did not vote for the official Democratic nominee. Thurmond's % is the lowest popular vote percentage for a candidate who won all of a state's electoral votes.[82] The presidential election contrasted with other elections across the world during this period, for Truman was a war leader who managed to win re-election (Churchill and De Gaulle both left office shortly after the end of the war).[83][84]

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote[85]
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote[85]
Harry S. Truman (Incumbent)Democratic[a]Missouri24,, % Alben William BarkleyKentucky
Thomas Edmund DeweyRepublican[b]New York21,, % Earl WarrenCalifornia
James Strom Thurmond Sr.States' Rights DemocraticSouth Carolina1,, % 39[86]Fielding Lewis WrightMississippi39[86]
Henry Agard WallaceProgressive/American LaborNew York1,, % 0 Glen Hearst TaylorIdaho0
Norman Mattoon ThomasSocialistNew York , % 0 Tucker Powell SmithMichigan0
Claude A. WatsonProhibitionCalifornia , % 0 Dale LearnPennsylvania0
Edward A. TeichertSocialist LaborPennsylvania 29, % 0 Stephen EmeryNew York0
Farrell DobbsSocialist WorkersMinnesota13, % 0 Grace Holmes CarlsonMinnesota 0
Other3, % Other
Total 48,, %
Needed to win
Popular vote
Truman

&#;

%
Dewey

&#;

%
Thurmond

&#;

%
Wallace

&#;

%
Others

&#;

%
Electoral vote
Truman

&#;

%
Dewey

&#;

%
Thurmond

&#;

%
 Electoral Map.png
  • Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote

Results by state[edit]

[87]Harry S. Truman
Democratic
Thomas E. Dewey
Republican
J. Strom Thurmond
Dixiecrat
Henry Wallace
Progressive
Norman Thomas
Socialist
Other Margin State Total
State electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % #
Alabama11 ---40,-,111,----1,-,, AL
Arizona4 95,477,----3,-----17,, AZ
Arkansas9 ,950,-40,--1,-1-98,, AR
California25 1,,251,,-1,-,-3,-18,-17,4,, CA
Colorado6 ,6,----6,-1,--27,, CO
Connecticut8 ,-,8---13,-6,-1,-,, CT
Delaware3 67,-69,3---1,----1,, DE
Florida8 ,8,-89,-11,-------87,, FL
Georgia12 ,1276,-85,-1,-3--,, GA
Idaho4 ,4,----4,---5,, ID
Illinois28 1,,281,,-------11,-16,-33,3,, IL
Indiana13 ,-,13---9,-2,-15,-,1,, IN
Iowa10 ,10,----12,-1,-7,-28,1,, IA
Kansas8 ,-,8---4,-2,-6,-,, KS
Kentucky11 ,11,-10,-1,-1,-1,-,, KY
Louisiana10 ,-72,-,103,----10-,, LA
Maine5 ,-,5---1,---,, ME
Maryland8 ,-,82,-9,-2,-----8,, MD
Massachusetts16 1,,16,----38,----7,-,2,, MA
Michigan19 1,,-1,,19---46,-6,-14,-,2,, MI
Minnesota11 ,11,----27,-4,-3,-,1,, MN
Mississippi[b][88]9 19,-5,-,9-------,, MS
Missouri15 ,15,-42-3,-2,-12-,1,, MO
Montana4 ,496,----7,---22,, MT
Nebraska6 ,-,6---------1-,, NE
Nevada3 31,329,----1,-------1,62, NV
New Hampshire4 ,-,47-1,-86-83-,, NH
New Jersey16 ,-,16---42,-10,-19,-,1,, NJ
New Mexico4 ,480,----1,-83--25,, NM
New York[a][88]47 2,,-2,,47---,-40,-5,-,6,, NY
North Carolina14 ,14,-69,-3,-------,, NC
North Dakota4 95,-,4-8,-1,----,, ND
Ohio25 1,,251,,----37,-------7,2,, OH
Oklahoma10 ,10,-------------,
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/_United_States_presidential_election

Today&#;s Wiki-est Amazonian Googlies

Across

1 Space station launched in : SKYLAB

Skylab was sent into orbit by NASA in and continued to circle the Earth there until Although it was in orbit for many years, Skylab was only occupied by astronauts for days, in three missions in Skylab burned up in the Earth’s atmosphere a lot earlier than expected, showering some huge chunks of debris on our friends in Australia.

7 &#;__, Inc.&#;: film : MONSTERS

The animated feature &#;Monsters, Inc.&#; was released in , and was Pixar&#;s fourth full-length movie. It&#;s about cute monsters, and that&#;s all I know other than that the voice cast included the likes of John Goodman, Billy Crystal and Steve Buscemi.

15 Commonly green dish : SALAD

Our word “salad” comes from the Latin “salare” meaning “to salt”. The Latin “herba salata” translates as “salted vegetables”, which I guess could be a salad …

20 South American naval force : ARMADA

“Armada” is a Spanish (and Portuguese) word meaning “naval fleet”.

21 Turkey, mostly : ANATOLIA

Asia Minor is also known as Anatolia. It is the geographic part of Asia that protrudes out into the west, towards Europe, and is roughly equivalent to modern-day Turkey.

25 Terry O&#;Quinn&#;s &#;Lost&#; role : LOCKE

Actor Terry O&#;Quinn is perhaps best known for portraying John Locke on the TV show “Lost”. He also played serial killer Jerry Blake, the title character in the film “The Stepfather”.

26 Big bunch : SCAD

The origin of the word &#;scads&#;, meaning &#;lots and lots&#;, is unclear. That said, &#;scads&#; was used to mean &#;dollars&#; back in the mids.

32 Two-time Super Bowl QB Manning : ELI

Eli Manning is a retired footballer who played quarterback for the New York Giants. Eli’s brother Peyton Manning retired from football as the quarterback for the Denver Broncos in Eli and Peyton’s father is Archie Manning, who was also a successful NFL quarterback. Eli, Peyton and Archie co-authored a book for children titled “Family Huddle” in It describes the Mannings playing football together as young boys.

34 Country name last used in : SIAM

Siam was the official name of Thailand up to (and again from to ).

35 R&#;B singer&#;s hyphenated stage name : NE-YO

“Ne-Yo” is the stage name of R&#;B singer Shaffer Chimere Smith.

44 Links scores : BOGEYS

The golfing term “bogey” originated at the Great Yarmouth Golf Club in England in , and was used to indicate a total round that was one-over-par (and not one-over-par on a particular hole, as it is today). The name “bogey” came from a music hall song of the time “Here Comes the Bogeyman”. In the following years it became popular for players trying to stay at par to be “playing against Colonel Bogey”. Then, during WWI, the marching tune “Colonel Bogey” was written and named after the golfing term. If you don’t recognize the name of the tune, it’s the one that’s whistled by the soldiers marching in the great movie “The Bridge on the River Kwai”.

46 Lena of &#;Chocolat&#; : OLIN

Lena Olin is a Swedish actress, and clearly someone who had acting in her blood. Her mother was the actress Britta Holmberg and her father the actor and director Stig Olin. Olin had a very successful career in Sweden, often working with the great Ingmar Bergman. Olin’s breakthrough international and English-speaking role was playing opposite Daniel Day-Lewis in “The Unbearable Lightness of Being” released in Way back in , Miss Olin was crowned Miss Scandinavia in a beauty pageant for Nordic women held in Helsinki, Finland. Olin’s most famous performance was in “Chocolat” released in , and then she won an Emmy in for Best Supporting Actress in the TV show “Alias”.

The movie &#;Chocolat&#; released in is a big screen adaption of the novel of the same name by Joanne Harris. “Chocolat” tells the story of a young mother with a six-year-old daughter who opens up a chocolate shop in a French village. The mother is played by the talented Juliette Binoche.

47 Lennon&#;s love : ONO

John Lennon and Yoko Ono had a very public honeymoon in a hotel in Amsterdam and then Montreal, when they staged their famous “bed-in” for peace. In answering questions from reporters Lennon found himself often repeating the words “give peace a chance”. While still in bed, he composed his famous song “Give Peace a Chance” and even made the original recording of the song in the Montreal hotel room, with reporters present, and with a whole bunch of friends. The song was released later in and became a smash hit. Writing credit was initially given to Lennon-McCartney, as was the agreement between John Lennon and Paul McCartney. Later versions of the song were credited just to Lennon, even though Lennon stated that Yoko Ono actually wrote the song with him.

48 Fall Out Boy genre : EMO

&#;Emo&#; is short for &#;emotional hardcore&#;.

Fall Out Boy is a rock band from Chicago that formed in

53 __ boom : SONIC

Supersonic transports (SSTs) like the Concorde broke Mach 1, the speed of sound. As a plane flies through the air, it creates pressure waves in front (and behind) rather like the bow and stern waves of a boat. These pressure waves travel at the speed of sound, so as an aircraft itself accelerates towards the speed of sound it catches up with the pressure waves until they cannot “get out of the way”. When the aircraft reaches the speed of sound, the compressed waves merge into one single shock wave, creating a sonic boom.

55 &#;Elder&#; or &#;Younger&#; Roman statesman : CATO

Cato the Elder was a Roman statesman, known historically as “the elder” in order to distinguish him from his great-grandson, Cato the Younger. Cato the Elder’s ultimate position within Roman society was that of Censor, making him responsible for maintaining the census, and for supervising public morality.

Cato the Younger was a politician in the late Roman Republic. He was noted for his moral integrity, and his ability as an orator. He is also remembered for an extended conflict that he had with Julius Caesar.

57 Charlemagne&#;s realm: Abbr. : HRE

Charlemagne was the first king to use the title “Holy Roman Emperor”, even though the Holy Roman Empire (HRE) was not actually founded per se until over a century later when Otto I was crowned Emperor. Otto was the first of an unbroken line of Holy Roman Emperors who ruled Central Europe from until

58 Marine snail : WHELK

“Whelk” is a name given to various sea snails. The actual usage, and its application to various species depends on where you are in the world.

59 Home of Hercules&#; lion : NEMEA

“The Twelve Labors of Hercules” is actually a Greek myth, although Hercules is the Roman name for the hero that the Greeks called “Heracles”. The first of these labors was to slay the Nemean lion, a monster that lived in a cave near Nemea. Hercules had a tough job as the lion&#;s golden fur was impenetrable to normal weapons. One version of the story is that Hercules killed the lion by shooting an arrow into its mouth. Another version says that Hercules stunned the monster with a club and then strangled him with his bare hands.

61 Loafer, e.g. : SHOE

The loafer slip-on shoe dates back to &#;Loafer&#; was originally a brand name introduced by Fortnum and Mason&#;s store in London. The derivative term “penny loafer” arose in the late fifties or early sixties, although the exact etymology seems unclear.

64 Mikey, Mouth or Chunk, in an &#;85 film : GOONIE

“The Goonies” is a movie based on a story written by Steven Spielberg. It is an adventure film, with the title characters being a group of young treasure hunters from the fictional Goon Docks neighborhood of Astoria, Oregon (hence the movie’s title). I haven’t seen this one …

65 TV monitoring org. : FCC

TV broadcasting is monitored by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The FCC has been around since , when it replaced the Federal Radio Commission.

73 Friend of Athos : ARAMIS

Alexandre Dumas’ “Three Musketeers” are Athos, Porthos and Aramis, although the hero of the novel is the trio’s young protégé D’Artagnan. A musketeer was an infantry soldier who was equipped with a musket. Funnily enough, the three “musketeers” really don’t use their muskets, and are better known for prowess with their swords.

75 Big name in pet food : IAMS

Iams dog food was introduced by animal nutritionist Paul Iams. He felt that household pets were suffering somewhat by being fed a diet of table scraps, so he developed a dry dog food that he felt was more nutritious and suitable for pet dogs. He founded the Iams company, now part of Procter &#; Gamble, in

76 Hard-to-ride horse : BRONC

A bronco (also &#;bronc&#;) is a horse that is untamed. In Mexican Spanish &#;bronco&#; is a word for &#;horse&#;, and in the original Spanish &#;bronco&#; means &#;rough, rude&#;.

81 Old apple spray : ALAR

The chemical name for Alar, a plant growth regulator and color enhancer, is “daminozide”. Alar was primarily used on apples but was withdrawn from the market when it was linked to cancer.

82 Dept. of Labor arm : OSHA

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) was created in during the Nixon administration. OSHA regulates workplaces in the private sector and regulates just one government agency, namely the US Postal Service.

86 Football&#;s Terrell, nicknamed &#;T.O.&#; : OWENS

Terrell “T.O.” Owens is a retired NFL player. Owens was known for some pretty flamboyant celebrations after he scored touchdowns. A few of those celebrations earned him fines from the NFL.

87 Drug kingpin? : TRAFFIC ENGINEER

The word “kingpin” is mainly used figuratively these days, to describe the most prominent member of a group. Back at the start of the 19th century, a kingpin was the largest pin in a bowling game called “kayles”. As a result, the term “kingpin” is also used sometimes in ten-pin bowling to describe the 5-pin, the pin in the center of the triangular array.

93 Bank offering, for short : IRA

Individual retirement account (IRA)

95 Ancient ascetic : ESSENE

The Essenes were a Jewish religious group who are most noted these days perhaps as the authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Essenes led simple lives devoted to poverty.

Former Fords : LTDS

There has been a lot of speculation about what the abbreviation “LTD” stands for in the car model known as “Ford LTD”. Many say it is an initialism standing for “Luxury Trim Decor”, and others say that it is short for “limited”. Although the car was produced in Australia with the initialism meaning “Lincoln Type Design”, it seems that “LTD” was originally chosen as just three meaningless letters that sound well together.

Mmes., in Madrid : SRAS

Madrid is the most populous city in Spain, and is the nation’s capital. It is located very close to the geographical center of the country. Madrid is the second-largest city in the European Union by population, after Berlin. People from Madrid called themselves Madrileños.

CVS pickups : RXS

There seems to be some uncertainty about the origin of the symbol &#;Rx&#; that&#;s used for a medical prescription. One explanation is that it comes from the astrological sign for Jupiter, a symbol put on prescriptions in days of old to invoke Jupiter&#;s blessing to help a patient recover.

The name of the drugstore chain CVS once stood for “Consumer Value Stores”, although these days the company uses the initialism to denote “Convenience, Value and Service”.

Conger catcher : EELER

Conger eels can grow to be very, very large, perhaps up to 10 feet in length.

Chopper blade : ROTOR

Our term “helicopter” was absorbed from the French word “hélicoptère” that was coined by Gustave Ponton d’Amécourt in d’Amécourt envisioned aircraft that could fly vertically using rotating wings that “screwed” into the air. He combined the Greek terms “helix” meaning “spiral, whirl” and “pteron” meaning “wing” to give us “helicopter”.

__ Beach, composer of the first symphony composed by an American woman : AMY

Amy Beach was an American pianist and composer. In , the Boston Symphony Orchestra premiered her “Gaelis Symphony”, which was the first symphony composed and published by a female American composer. Beach had already established herself as a successful classical composer, most notably perhaps with the first performance of her “Mass in E-flat major” in

&#;To be&#; is one, poetically : IAMB

An iamb is a metrical foot containing an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. The lines in Robert Frost’s “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” use four sequential iambs, e.g. “Whose woods / these are / I think / I know”. With that sequence of four iambs, the poem’s structure is described as iambic tetrameter.

TV series with the episode &#;Harmony of the Worlds&#; : COSMOS

“Cosmos: A Personal Journey” is a TV show co-written and presented by astronomer Carl Sagan. Originally airing in , it was the most-watched series in the history of public television until Ken Burns started to produce his documentaries a decade later. Sagan’s opening words for the series are:

The Cosmos is all that is or was or ever will be. Our feeblest contemplations of the Cosmos stir us &#; there is a tingling in the spine, a catch in the voice, a faint sensation, as if a distant memory, of falling from a height. We know we are approaching the greatest of mysteries.

Down

2 Fast food magnate who once owned the San Diego Padres : KROC

The original McDonald&#;s restaurant was opened in by Richard and Maurice McDonald as a barbecue restaurant. The brothers then moved into fast food hamburgers, eventually selling out to one of their franchise agents, Ray Kroc. It was Ray Kroc who really led the company to its worldwide success. He was played by Michael Keaton in the movie about Ray Kroc’s business life called “The Founder”.

3 Pool site, often : YMCA

The YMCA (the Y) is a worldwide movement that has its roots in London, England. There, in , the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) was founded with the intent of promoting Christian principles through the development of “a healthy spirit, mind and body”. The founder, George Williams, saw the need to create YMCA facilities for young men who were flocking to the cities as the Industrial Revolution flourished. He saw that these men were frequenting taverns and brothels, and wanted to offer a more wholesome alternative.

5 Nabokov novel : ADA

“Ada” is a novel by Vladimir Nabokov. The story takes place in the s on Antiterra, an Earth-like planet that has a history similar to ours but with interesting differences. For example, there is a United States, but that country covers all of North and South America. What we call eastern Canada is a French-speaking province called “Canady”, and western Canada is a Russian-speaking province called “Estody”. The storyline is about a man called Van Veen who, when 14 years old, meets for the first time his cousin, year-old Ada. The two cousins eventually have an affair, only to discover later that they are in fact brother and sister.

6 Light wood : BALSA

Balsa is a very fast-growing tree that is native to parts of South America. Even though balsa wood is very soft, it is actually classified as a hardwood, the softest of all the hardwoods (go figure!). Balsa is light and strong, so is commonly used in making model airplanes. Amazingly, in WWII a full-size British plane, the de Havilland Mosquito, was built largely from balsa and plywood. No wonder they called it &#;The Wooden Wonder&#; and &#;The Timber Terror&#;.

7 Retinal area subject to degeneration : MACULA

The macula is a pigmented area near the center of the retina. The macula has a high density of cone cells, and so plays a role in high-resolution, color vision. Macular degeneration, which typically occurs in older people, can lead to a loss of central vision.

9 Dundee denials : NAES

The city of Dundee lies on the north bank of the Firth of Tay in Scotland. The origins of the name “Dundee” are a little obscure, although the omnipresent “dùn” in place names all over Scotland and Ireland is the Celtic word for “fort”.

10 RR stop : STN

A station (“stn.” or “sta.”) is a railroad (RR) or bus stop.

11 &#;Sesame Street&#; watcher : TOT

Back in , the Carnegie Institute allocated money to study the use of television to help young children prepare for school. The institute gave an $8million grant to set up the Children’s Television Workshop with the task of creating an educational TV program for young people. The program began to come together, especially after Jim Henson (of Muppet fame) got involved. The name “Sesame Street” was chosen simply because it was the “least disliked” of all names proposed just before the program went on the air.

15 Short-lived nuclear treaty : SALT II

There were two rounds of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) between the US and the Soviet Union, and two resulting treaties (SALT I &#; SALT II). The opening round of SALT I talks were held in Helsinki as far back as , with the resulting treaty signed by President Richard Nixon and General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev in Brezhnev also signed the SALT II treaty, with President Jimmy Carter in

16 Ancient assembly areas : AGORAS

In early Greece, an agora was a place of assembly. The assemblies held there were often quite formal, perhaps for the reading of a proclamation. Later in Greek history, things became less formal as the agora evolved into a marketplace. Our contemporary word “agoraphobia” comes from these agorae, in the sense that an agoraphobe has a fear of open spaces, a fear of “public meeting places”.

17 Temporary substitute that means &#;place holder&#; in Latin : LOCUM TENENS

A locum (from “locum tenens”) is someone who fills in temporarily for another, especially carrying out the duties of a medical professional or a member of the clergy. The phrase “locum tenens” translates to “place holder”, and is similar to the French term “lieutenant” (from Old French “lieu tenant”)

18 Huber of tennis : ANKE

Anke Huber is a retired professional tennis player from Germany. Huber stepped out of the shadow of fellow German star Steffi Graf when Graf retired in , and for the last two years of her playing career Huber enjoyed recognition as Germany’s top player.

24 Bic Clic __ pen : STIC

Société Bic is a company based in Clichy in France. The first product the company produced, more than fifty years ago, was the Bic Cristal ballpoint pen that is still produced today. Bic also makes other disposable products such as lighters and razors.

31 Small dogs : TOYS

The toy group of dogs is made up of the smallest breeds. The smallest of the small breeds are sometimes called teacup breeds.

32 &#;National Velvet&#; author Bagnold : ENID

“National Velvet” is a novel by Enid Bagnold that was first published in The story centers on Velvet Brown, a year-old girl who rides her own horse to victory in the most celebrated of English horse races, the Grand National steeplechase. A famous film adaptation of the story was released in starring a young Mickey Rooney and year-old Elizabeth Taylor in the title role. After filming was completed, Taylor was given the horse that she rode as a gift for her birthday.

33 Filmmaker Riefenstahl : LENI

Leni Riefenstahl was a German film director, actress and dancer. She was a noted figure moving in Adolf Hitler’s circle, and her most famous film was a propaganda piece called “Triumph of the Will”. “Triumph of the Will” documents the Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg. We’ve all probably seen many excerpts, shots of huge crowds, Nazis marching with flags, and frenzied speeches from Hitler. Riefenstahl was arrested after the war and detained for a number of years but never found guilty of any crime. She lived a long life, a very long life. She was married for the second time in , at the age of years. She died just a few weeks later, as she had been suffering from cancer.

34 __-cone : SNO

A sno-cone (also &#;snow cone&#;) is just a paper cone filled with crushed ice and topped with flavored water. Italian ice is similar, but different. Whereas the flavoring is added on top of the ice to make a sno-cone, Italian ice is made with water that is flavored before it is frozen.

35 &#;A Doll&#;s House&#; heroine : NORA

“A Doll’s House” is probably the most famous play by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. The play deals with the feminist awakening of the lead character, Nora Helmer. “A Doll’s House” is sometimes referred to as the “first true feminist play”.

36 Awards acronym : EGOT

The acronym “EGOT” stands for “Emmy, Grammy, Oscar, Tony”, and is a reference to performers who have won all four awards.

39 Martinique, e.g. : ILE

The island of Martinique in the eastern Caribbean is actually a part of France, and is referred to as an &#;overseas department&#;. As such, Martinique is part of the European Union and even uses the euro as its currency. The island is fully represented in the French National Assembly and Senate, just like any department within France. It&#;s sort of like the status of Hawaii within the US.

41 About, on a memo : IN RE

The term “in re” is Latin, and is derived from “in” (in) and “res” (thing, matter). “In re” literally means “in the matter”, and is used to mean “in regard to” or “in the matter of”.

42 __ Barzini, Vito&#;s rival in &#;The Godfather&#; : EMILIO

Emilio Barzini (aka “the Wolf”) is the main antagonist in Mario Puzo’s “The Godfather”. In the film adaptation, Barzini is played by actor Richard Conte.

Mario Puzo created the Corleone Mafia family in his novel “The Godfather”. The head of the family is Vito Corleone (whose birth name was Vito Andolini), a native of Corleone in Sicily. He was given the name Corleone by immigration officers at Ellis Island. Don Corleone was played so very memorably, with a distinctive rasping voice, by Marlon Brando in the movie adaptation directed by Francis Ford Coppola.

44 Discreetly send a dupe email to : BCC

A blind carbon copy (bcc) is a copy of a document or message that is sent to someone without other recipients of the message knowing about that extra copy.

45 Hindu teachers : SWAMIS

A swami is a religious teacher in the Hindu tradition. The word “swami” can also mean “husband” in the Bengali and Malay languages.

50 Was shy? : OWED

To be shy is to be short, lacking. This use of “shy” originated as gambling slang meaning “owe money to the pot”.

61 Last word of &#;America the Beautiful&#; : … SEA!

When she was 33 years old, Katharine Lee Bates took a train ride from Massachusetts to Colorado Springs. She was so inspired by many of the beautiful sights she saw on her journey that she wrote a poem she called &#;Pikes Peak&#;. Upon publication the poem became quite a hit, and several musical works were adapted to the words of the poem, the most popular being a hymn tune composed by Samuel Ward. Bates&#;s poem and Ward&#;s tune were published together for the first time in , and given the title &#;America the Beautiful&#;.

63 Allied gp. since : OAS

The Organization of American States (OAS) was founded in , and has its headquarters in Washington, D.C. Not all of the independent states in the Americas are members. Cuba was barred from participation in the organization after a vote in Honduras had her membership suspended after the country’s coup.

64 &#;Seinfeld&#; friend : GEORGE

In “Seinfeld”, Jerry’s friend George was the son of Frank and Estelle Costanza. George was portrayed by Jason Alexander, and the character was loosely based on the show’s co-creator Larry David. The character’s name came from Jerry Seinfeld’s real-life friend Mike Costanza. George’s parents were played by the great Jerry Stiller and Estelle Harris.

66 Embroidery yarn : CREWEL

Crewelwork is a type of embroidery using wool thread. The oldest surviving example of crewelwork is the celebrated Bayeux Tapestry. As such, the Bayeux “Tapestry” isn’t a tapestry at all.

69 When repeated, Cult Jam vocalist : LISA

Lisa Lisa and Cult Jam was a band that was active in the late eighties and early nineties. Lisa Lisa is the stage name of musician Lisa Velez.

80 Fall preceder? : PRAT-

“Prat” is a relatively new word for me, and is a slang term for the buttocks. A “prat-fall” is when someone falls and lands on the buttocks.

81 Court records : ACTA

Actum (plural “acta”) is the Latin word for “deed”. “Acta” is used in English to describe many official records, including minutes, proceedings etc.

84 Coop group : HENS

The Old English word “cypa”, meaning “basket”, evolved in the 14th century to the word “coop” to describe a small cage for poultry. We still use “coop” today.

90 Not Rep. or Dem. : IND

In the world of politics, an Independent (Ind.) is neither Republican (Rep.) nor Democrat (Dem.)

91 &#;Cast Away&#; setting : ISLE

“Cast Away” is a very entertaining adventure film released in starring Tom Hanks as a castaway on a South Pacific island. The Hanks character ends up on the island after a FedEx plane crashes, leaving him marooned there for four years before he manages to escape on a raft. The film had to be filmed in two sessions. For the first session, Hanks gained 50 pounds to make himself look pudgy for the early scenes. The crew had to wait a whole year for Hanks to lose the weight so that they could film the “cast away” scenes.

93 Part of TGIF : IT’S

“Thank God It’s Friday” (TGIF) is a relatively new expression that apparently originated in Akron, Ohio. It was a catchphrase used first by disk jockey Jerry Healy of WAKR in the early seventies. That said, one blog reader wrote to me to say that he had been using the phrase in the fifties.

98 Susan B. Anthony biographer Ida Husted __ : HARPER

Ida Husted Harper was an author and suffragist. She co-authored the book “History of Woman Suffrage” with Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Matilda Josly Gage. At the request of Anthony, she then wrote “The Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony”.

Susan B. Anthony was a social reformer and suffragist, who worked closely with fellow activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Famously, Anthony was arrested for voting in the presidential elections. She was put on trial, convicted, and ordered to pay a fine of $ Anthony refused to pay up, and the authorities declined to take further action. Anthony and Stanton then drafted a constitutional amendment that would give women the right to vote. The so-called “Susan B. Anthony Amendment” became the Nineteenth Amendment to the US Constitution in , fourteen years after Anthony died.

99 No-tell motel events : TRYSTS

In the most general sense, a tryst is a meeting at an agreed time and place. More usually we consider a tryst to be a pre-arranged meeting between lovers. The term comes from the Old French “triste”, a waiting place designated when hunting. Further, a tryst taking place at lunchtime is sometimes referred to as a nooner.

Garr of &#;Tootsie&#; : TERI

Actress Teri Garr had a whole host of minor roles in her youth, including appearances in nine Elvis movies. Garr’s big break came with the role of Inga in “Young Frankenstein”, and her supporting role in “Tootsie” earned Garr an Academy Award nomination. Sadly, Teri Garr suffers from multiple sclerosis. She is a National Ambassador for the National Multiple Sclerosis Society.

“Tootsie” is a hilarious comedy starring Dustin Hoffman in the title role, a male actor who adopts a female identity in order to land an acting job. Jessica Lange won a Best Supporting Actress Oscar for her performance in the film. “Tootsie” also provided Geena Davis with her first movie role.

Invite request : RSVP

“RSVP” stands for &#;répondez s&#;il vous plaît&#;, which is French for &#;answer, please&#;.

Turow novel set at Harvard : ONE L

Scott Turow is an author and lawyer from Chicago. Turow has had several bestselling novels including “Presumed Innocent”, “The Burden of Proof” and “Reversible Errors”, all three of which were made into films. He also wrote the autobiographical book “One L: The Turbulent True Story of a First Year at Harvard Law School”.

__ Domini : ANNO

The Latin word for year is “annus”. We often see it used in Latin phrases, but usually with a different spelling. In “anno Domini”, the “anno” is the ablative case of “annus” as the phrase means “in the year of the Lord”. Another example is “per annum”, in which “annum” is the accusative case as the literal translation of the phrase is “during the year”.

Annual May golf tournaments, familiarly : PGAS

The four major golf competitions in men’s golf are:

  • the Masters Tournament
  • the US Open
  • the Open Championship (aka “the British Open”)
  • the PGA Championship

Con __: briskly : MOTO

The musical term “con moto” indicates that a passage should be played quickly, briskly, The term translates from Italian as “with motion”.

Shamus : TEC

“Shamus” is a slang term describing a policeman or a private investigator. The experts don’t seem so sure, but there is no doubt in my mind that the term derives from the Irish name “Séamus” (“James” in English). In days past, the stereotypical cop hailed from the Auld Sod.

Offline, briefly : IRL

In real life (IRL)

Brian of rock : ENO

Brian Eno is a musician, composer and record producer from England who first achieved fame as the synthesizer player with Roxy Music. As a producer, Eno has worked with David Bowie, Devo, Talking Heads and U2.

Complete List of Clues/Answers

Across

1 Space station launched in : SKYLAB
7 &#;__, Inc.&#;: film : MONSTERS
15 Commonly green dish : SALAD
20 South American naval force : ARMADA
21 Turkey, mostly : ANATOLIA
22 Torment : AGONY
23 Researcher with an outgoing personality? : SOCIAL SCIENTIST
25 Terry O&#;Quinn&#;s &#;Lost&#; role : LOCKE
26 Big bunch : SCAD
27 Floors : STUNS
28 Clamp shape : CEE
29 Leveled, with &#;up&#; : TRUED &#;
30 Dot-commerce : E-TAIL
32 Two-time Super Bowl QB Manning : ELI
34 Country name last used in : SIAM
35 R&#;B singer&#;s hyphenated stage name : NE-YO
37 Clergyman who builds cupboards? : CABINET MINISTER
44 Links scores : BOGEYS
46 Lena of &#;Chocolat&#; : OLIN
47 Lennon&#;s love : ONO
48 Fall Out Boy genre : EMO
49 Bleep button operator? : CROSS WORD EDITOR
53 __ boom : SONIC
55 &#;Elder&#; or &#;Younger&#; Roman statesman : CATO
56 Stuns : AWES
57 Charlemagne&#;s realm: Abbr. : HRE
58 Marine snail : WHELK
59 Home of Hercules&#; lion : NEMEA
61 Loafer, e.g. : SHOE
64 Mikey, Mouth or Chunk, in an &#;85 film : GOONIE
65 TV monitoring org. : FCC
68 Dietitian? : MIDDLE MANAGER
72 Ground cover : SOD
73 Friend of Athos : ARAMIS
75 Big name in pet food : IAMS
76 Hard-to-ride horse : BRONC
78 Moved to a quieter table, say : RESAT
79 Special __ : OPS
81 Old apple spray : ALAR
82 Dept. of Labor arm : OSHA
86 Football&#;s Terrell, nicknamed &#;T.O.&#; : OWENS
87 Drug kingpin? : TRAFFIC ENGINEER
92 &#;Yuck!&#; : FEH!
93 Bank offering, for short : IRA
94 Advanced : LENT
95 Ancient ascetic : ESSENE
96 Getaway driver? : FLIGHT ATTENDANT
Former Fords : LTDS
Mmes., in Madrid : SRAS
CVS pickups : RXS
Conger catcher : EELER
Chopper blade : ROTOR
__ Beach, composer of the first symphony composed by an American woman : AMY
Mimic&#;s talent : APERY
&#;To be&#; is one, poetically : IAMB
Busybody : SNOOP
Fishing guide? : CASTING DIRECTOR
Liveliness : VERVE
Like some hard drives : EXTERNAL
Altogether : IN TOTO
Tradesperson : PLYER
Reveal : DISCLOSE
TV series with the episode &#;Harmony of the Worlds&#; : COSMOS

Down

1 Undesirable freshness : SASS
2 Fast food magnate who once owned the San Diego Padres : KROC
3 Pool site, often : YMCA
4 Spotted : LAID EYES ON
5 Nabokov novel : ADA
6 Light wood : BALSA
7 Retinal area subject to degeneration : MACULA
8 &#;Come __!&#;: &#;Welcome!&#; : ON IN
9 Dundee denials : NAES
10 RR stop : STN
11 &#;Sesame Street&#; watcher : TOT
12 Bring out : ELICIT
13 Angry reaction : RISE
14 Fill to the max : SATE
15 Short-lived nuclear treaty : SALT II
16 Ancient assembly areas : AGORAS
17 Temporary substitute that means &#;place holder&#; in Latin : LOCUM TENENS
18 Huber of tennis : ANKE
19 Like some blond hair : DYED
24 Bic Clic __ pen : STIC
31 Small dogs : TOYS
32 &#;National Velvet&#; author Bagnold : ENID
33 Filmmaker Riefenstahl : LENI
34 __-cone : SNO
35 &#;A Doll&#;s House&#; heroine : NORA
36 Awards acronym : EGOT
38 They&#;re ripped in gyms : BODS
39 Martinique, e.g. : ILE
40 Anchor : MOOR
41 About, on a memo : IN RE
42 __ Barzini, Vito&#;s rival in &#;The Godfather&#; : EMILIO
43 Disturbed greatly : ROCKED
44 Discreetly send a dupe email to : BCC
45 Hindu teachers : SWAMIS
50 Was shy? : OWED
51 Interpret : READ
52 &#;Accordingly &#; &#; : THEN &#;
53 Like much testimony : SWORN
54 &#;Look here!&#; : OHO!
60 Gives forth : EMITS
61 Last word of &#;America the Beautiful&#; : … SEA
62 &#;Let&#;s see &#; &#; : HMM &#;
63 Allied gp. since : OAS
64 &#;Seinfeld&#; friend : GEORGE
65 Remote : FAR OFF
66 Embroidery yarn : CREWEL
67 Patient record : CASE HISTORY
69 When repeated, Cult Jam vocalist : LISA
70 Competent : ABLE
71 Nana : GRAN
74 &#;Wow!&#; : MAN!
77 Negatively affects the flow in : CONSTRICTS
79 Other, to Ortiz : OTRA
80 Fall preceder? : PRAT-
81 Court records : ACTA
83 Schedule competitively, as a tournament : SEED
84 Coop group : HENS
85 Is for a few : ARE
88 Bend : FLEX
89 Marshy areas : FENS
90 Not Rep. or Dem. : IND
91 &#;Cast Away&#; setting : ISLE
93 Part of TGIF : IT’S
97 It&#;s on the record : GROOVE
98 Susan B. Anthony biographer Ida Husted __ : HARPER
99 No-tell motel events : TRYSTS
Pine __ : NEEDLE
Garr of &#;Tootsie&#; : TERI
Songlike : LYRIC
Invite request : RSVP
Turow novel set at Harvard : ONE L
Finished perfectly : ACED
Dress style : MAXI
__ Domini : ANNO
Annual May golf tournaments, familiarly : PGAS
Tiny bit : ATOM
Con __: briskly : MOTO
Frat dudes : BROS
Shamus : TEC
Offline, briefly : IRL
Brian of rock : ENO

Sours: https://laxcrossword.com//05/la-times-crosswordmaysunday.html
  1. 2003 chevy tahoe 4x4 transmission
  2. 2003 ford ranger starter relay
  3. Wood animal head wall decor

LA Times Crossword May 30 Answers

In our website you will be able to access all LA Times Crossword May 30 Answers. We are a group of friends working together and focused on solving all the crosswords and sharing their answers online. The idea why we share the answers online is that many people can’t solve them and we are here to help.

NOTE:BELOW YOU CAN CLICK ON EACH CLUE TO FIND THE ANSWER

ACROSS

  • Space station launched in
  • Ò__, Inc.Ó: film
  • Commonly green dish
  • South American naval force
  • Turkey, mostly
  • Torment
  • Researcher with an outgoing personality?
  • Terry OÕQuinnÕs ÒLostÓ role
  • Big bunch
  • Floors
  • Clamp shape
  • Leveled, with ÒupÓ
  • Dot-commerce
  • Two-time Super Bowl QB Manning
  • Country name last used in
  • R&B singerÕs hyphenated stage name
  • Clergyman who builds cupboards?
  • Links scores
  • Lena of ÒChocolatÓ
  • LennonÕs love
  • Fall Out Boy genre
  • Bleep button operator?
  • __ boom
  • ÒElderÓ or ÒYoungerÓ Roman statesman
  • Stuns
  • CharlemagneÕs realm: Abbr.
  • Marine snail
  • Home of HerculesÕ lion
  • Loafer, e.g.
  • Mikey, Mouth or Chunk, in an Õ85 film
  • TV monitoring org.
  • Dietitian?
  • Ground cover
  • Friend of Athos
  • Big name in pet food
  • Hard-to-ride horse
  • Moved to a quieter table, say
  • Special __
  • Old apple spray
  • Dept. of Labor arm
  • FootballÕs Terrell, nicknamed ÒT.O.Ó
  • Drug kingpin?
  • ÒYuck!Ó
  • Bank offering, for short
  • Advanced
  • Ancient ascetic
  • Getaway driver?
  • Former Fords
  • Mmes., in Madrid
  • CVS pickups
  • Conger catcher
  • Chopper blade
  • __ Beach, composer of the first symphony composed by an American woman
  • MimicÕs talent
  • ÒTo beÓ is one, poetically
  • Busybody
  • Fishing guide?
  • Liveliness
  • Like some hard drives
  • Altogether
  • Tradesperson
  • Reveal
  • TV series with the episode ÒHarmony of the WorldsÓ

DOWN

  • Undesirable freshness
  • Fast food magnate who once owned the San Diego Padres
  • Pool site, often
  • Spotted
  • Nabokov novel
  • Light wood
  • Retinal area subject to degeneration
  • ÒCome __!Ó: ÒWelcome!Ó
  • Dundee denials
  • RR stop
  • ÒSesame StreetÓ watcher
  • Bring out
  • Angry reaction
  • Fill to the max
  • Short-lived nuclear treaty
  • Ancient assembly areas
  • Temporary substitute that means Òplace holderÓ in Latin
  • Huber of tennis
  • Like some blond hair
  • Bic Clic __ pen
  • Small dogs
  • ÒNational VelvetÓ author Bagnold
  • Filmmaker Riefenstahl
  • __-cone
  • ÒA DollÕs HouseÓ heroine
  • Awards acronym
  • TheyÕre ripped in gyms
  • Martinique, e.g.
  • Anchor
  • About, on a memo
  • __ Barzini, VitoÕs rival in ÒThe GodfatherÓ
  • Disturbed greatly
  • Discreetly send a dupe email to
  • Hindu teachers
  • Was shy?
  • Interpret
  • ÒAccordingly &#; Ó
  • Like much testimony
  • ÒLook here!Ó
  • Gives forth
  • Last word of ÒAmerica the BeautifulÓ
  • ÒLetÕs see &#; Ó
  • Allied gp. since
  • ÒSeinfeldÓ friend
  • Remote
  • Embroidery yarn
  • Patient record
  • When repeated, Cult Jam vocalist
  • Competent
  • Nana
  • ÒWow!Ó
  • Negatively affects the flow in
  • Other, to Ortiz
  • Fall preceder?
  • Court records
  • Schedule competitively, as a tournament
  • Coop group
  • Is for a few
  • Bend
  • Marshy areas
  • Not Rep. or Dem.
  • ÒCast AwayÓ setting
  • Part of TGIF
  • ItÕs on the record
  • Susan B. Anthony biographer Ida Husted __
  • No-tell motel events
  • Pine __
  • Garr of ÒTootsieÓ
  • Songlike
  • Invite request
  • Turow novel set at Harvard
  • Finished perfectly
  • Dress style
  • __ Domini
  • Annual May golf tournaments, familiarly
  • Tiny bit
  • Con __: briskly
  • Frat dudes
  • Shamus
  • Offline, briefly
  • Brian of rock
Filed under LA Times | Tagged LA Times Crossword May 30 Answers | PermalinkSours: http://crosswordpuzzlesolver.net/la-times-crossword-mayanswers/
Stardust: tales from the early days of computing, 1948 – 1958

Today&#;s Wiki-est Amazonian Googlies

Across

1 Dip for chips : SALSA

“Salsa” is simply Spanish for “sauce”.

6 Epitome of redness : BEET

The more common meaning of “epitome” is “perfect example of a group, quality, type”. An epitome is also an abstract or summary of a book or article.

10 ___ Jima ( battle site) : IWO

Iwo Jima is a volcanic island located south of Tokyo that today is uninhabited. The name is Japanese for “Sulfur Island”, referring to the sulfur mining on which Iwo Jima’s economy once depended. There were about a thousand Japanese civilians living on the island prior to WWII. In , there was a massive influx of Japanese military personnel in anticipation of the inevitable US invasion. As the Japanese military moved in, the civilians were forced out and no one has lived there since. Control of the island was wrested from the Japanese in the five-week Battle of Iwo Jima in Said battle was one of the bloodiest in the Pacific theater in WWII.

17 Game that has only a single round : RUSSIAN ROULETTE

The disturbing game of Russian roulette involves the placing of a single round in a revolver, spinning the cylinder and then a player firing the gun with the muzzle placed against his or her head. The “game” supposedly originated in Russia, and the name was first cited in a short story that dates back to Russian roulette was made famous by the movie “The Deerhunter” as it plays a central role in the film’s plot.

21 Bay Area airport code : SFO

The San Francisco Bay Area is served by three major airports: San Francisco (SFO), Oakland (OAK) and San Jose (SJC).

23 Single item seemingly always found at the bottom of a McDonald&#;s bag : FRENCH FRY

French fries are called “chips” back in Ireland where I grew up. And what we call “chips” in the US are known as &#;crisps&#; in Britain and Ireland. In France, French fries are known as “pommes frites” (fried potatoes).

27 Sales at concerts or games, informally : MERCH

Merchandise (“mdse.” or “merch.”)

29 Nile biter : ASP

The asp is a venomous snake found in the Nile region of Africa. It is so venomous that the asp was used in ancient Egypt and Greece as a means of execution. Cleopatra observed such executions noting that the venom brought on sleepiness without any painful spasms. When the great queen opted to commit suicide, the asp was therefore her chosen method.

31 &#;Kill Bill&#; actress Lucy : LIU

Lucy Liu is an actress from Queens, New York. Liu&#;s big break came when she was chosen to play the Ling Woo character in &#;Ally McBeal&#;. I liked her in the film &#;Charlie&#;s Angels&#; but as I am no fan of Quentin Tarantino, I did not enjoy the movie &#;Kill Bill&#;. I do enjoy one of Liu’s more recent projects in which she plays Joan Watson, one of the two lead characters in the TV crime drama “Elementary”.

“Kill Bill” is a 3-part Quentin Tarantino movie (I haven’t seen it, as I really don’t “do” Tarantino). “Kill Bill” started off as one film, but as the running time was over four hours, it was split into two “volumes”, released several months apart in and There has been a lot of talk about making “Kill Bill: Volume 3”.

32 One of more than on a table : ELEMENT

Dmitri Mendeleev was a Russian chemist. When Mendeleev classified elements according to their chemical properties, he noticed patterns and was able to group elements into his famous Periodic Table. So powerful was his table that he actually predicted the properties of some elements that had not even been discovered in Element number is mendelevium and was named after Mendeleev.

36 Dinghy or dory : BOAT

Our term “dinghy” comes from the Hindi “dingi”, a word meaning “small boat”.

A dory is a small boat that’s around 20 feet long with a shallow draft, a flat bottom and a sharp bow. Dories are commonly used for fishing.

37 Portmanteau coinage describing this puzzle&#;s theme : ALLITERNATION

A portmanteau was a large suitcase, one that could be taken apart into two separate pieces. The word “portmanteau” is French for a “travelling bag”, from “porter” (to carry) and “manteau” (a coat, cloak). We also use “portmanteau” to mean a word that has been melded together from two parts (just as the suitcase comprised two parts). This usage was introduced to the world by Humpty Dumpty in Lewis Carroll’s “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland”. He explained to Alice that the nonsense words in the “Jabberwocky” poem were actually portmanteau words. For example “slithy” comes from “slimy” and “lithe”.

41 Like some aprons or reputations : STAINED

In Old French, a “naperon” was a “small table-cloth”. The term was absorbed into English as “napron”, describing a cloth used to cover the front of a person at work. Over time, “a napron” was heard as “an apron”, giving us our contemporary noun “apron”.

42 Info for an airport limo driver : ETA

Estimated time of arrival (ETA)

43 NaOH, familiarly : LYE

What we call “lye” is usually sodium hydroxide (NaOH), although historically the term “lye” was used for potassium hydroxide. Lye has many uses, including to cure several foodstuffs. Lye can make olives less bitter, for example. The chemical is also found in canned mandarin oranges, pretzels and Japanese ramen noodles. More concentrated grades of lye are used to clear drains and clean ovens. Scary …

44 Cartoon collectibles : CELS

In the world of animation, a cel is a transparent sheet on which objects and characters are drawn. In the first half of the 20th century the sheet was actually made of celluloid, giving the &#;cel&#; its name.

47 Hot drink at a ski resort : TODDY

The word “toddy” has come a long way. Its origins lie in the Hindi word for a palm tree, which is “tar”. The derivative word “tari” was used for palm sap, which came into English as “tarrie”, then “taddy” and “toddy”, all of which described an alcoholic drink made from fermented palm sap. That was back around Late in the 18th century, the palm sap drink called “toddy” had morphed into meaning any alcoholic drink made with liquor, hot water, sugar and spices.

49 Entrance divided in half horizontally : DUTCH DOOR

A Dutch door has a top and a bottom equally divided in area. There is a suggestion that the term “go Dutch” originated with the Dutch door. The bill is “split”, and so are Dutch doors. That said, when people “go Dutch” they each pay for themselves, as opposed to even splitting the tab.

58 Board game played on a big hexagram : CHINESE CHECKERS

The board game known as Chinese Checkers has nothing to do with checkers, nor anything to do with China. It was invented in Germany in , under the name “Stern-Halma”. The Chinese Checkers moniker was the creation of the Pressman Company which purchased the rights to the game in the US in

62 Map with elevation lines, in brief : TOPO

A topographic map is one that illustrates land relief, the vertical and horizontal dimensions of the terrain. Typically, this is done using contour lines that show the steepness of slopes.

63 Explorer Marco : POLO

Marco

66 Old dagger : SNEE

A &#;snee&#; is a type of dagger formerly used by Scottish highlanders.

67 Tip of a shoelace : AGLET

An aglet is a plastic or metal sheath that is found on the end of a shoelace or perhaps a drawstring. The name “aglet” comes from the Old French word “aiguillette” meaning “needle”.

Down

1 Font flourish : SERIF

Serifs are details on the ends of characters in some typefaces. Typefaces without serifs are known as sans-serif, using the French word &#;sans&#; meaning &#;without&#; and “serif” from the Dutch “schreef” meaning “line”. Some people say that serif fonts are easier to read on paper, whereas sans-serif fonts work better on a computer screen. I&#;m not so sure though …

2 Egyptian king of the gods : AMUN-RA

Amun-Ra (also “Amon, Amen&#;) was a god in Egyptian mythology. Amun lends his name to our word &#;ammonia&#;. This is because the Romans called the ammonium chloride that they collected near the Temple of Jupiter Amun, &#;sal ammoniacus&#; (salt of Amun).

4 &#;___ boom bah!&#; : SIS

Apparently, “Sis boom bah” is a popular cheer in American high schools and colleges (I didn&#;t know that!). The term was also used by Johnny Carson when he was playing the character Carnac the Magnificent.

5 &#;Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee&#; boxer : ALI

Muhammad Ali first used his famous catchphrase “float like a butterfly and sting like a bee” before his world title fight against Sonny Liston in Back then Ali still went by his birth name of Cassius Clay.

6 Canada&#;s oldest national park : BANFF

Banff National Park in Alberta, Canada is located high in the Canadian Rockies and is a popular tourist destination. The town of Banff and the surrounding park were given their name in by then president of the Canadian Pacific Railway, George Stephen. He named Banff for his birthplace of Banffshire in Scotland.

10 &#;Goodnight, ___&#; (classic song) : IRENE

“Goodnight, Irene”, also known as “Irene, Goodnight”, is a lovely American folk song that was first recorded commercially back in by blues singer Lead Belly. The song made it to number one in the charts for the Weavers in and for Frank Sinatra in the same year.

11 Decisive defeat : WATERLOO

Waterloo is a small municipality in Belgium. The name “Waterloo” originated with the Dutch and is probably an anglicization of a Dutch word meaning “wet clearing in a forest”. The town is famous for the Battle of Waterloo that took place nearby in Said battle was fought between the Imperial French army led by Emperor Napoleon, and an Anglo-Allied army led by Irish-born British Field Marshal, the Duke of Wellington. Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo led to his abdication and the restoration of King Louis XVIII to the throne of France. Bonaparte was exiled to the British-owned island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died in Such is the fame of the battle that the term “Waterloo” is used figuratively today for any decisive or crushing defeat.

18 Volcanic pollutant : ASH

Our word “volcano” comes from “Vulcano”, the name of a volcanic island off the coast of Italy. The island’s name comes from Vulcan, the Roman god of fire. The Romans believed that the island of Vulcano was the chimney of the forge belonging to the god Vulcan. The Romans also believed that the eruptions on Mount Etna in Sicily were caused by Vulcan getting angry and working his forge so hard that sparks and smoke flew out of the top of the volcano.

19 Rock&#;s ___ Bizkit : LIMP

Limp Bizkit is described as a nu metal band, with “nu metal” being a subgenre of “heavy metal”. Limp Bizkit has been around since , and that’s all I know …

24 Nobelist Bohr with a Across named for him : NIELS

Niels Bohr was a Danish physicist who won his Nobel Prize for his work on quantum mechanics and atomic structure. Later in his life, Bohr was part of the team working on the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic bomb. Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein had a series of public debates and disputes in the twenties and thirties. Although the two respected each other very highly, they held very different views on quantum theory, different views on the laws of physics at the atomic level. The passage of time has shown that Bohr won out in those debates.

25 San Diego&#;s state, informally : CALI

The name of the California city of San Diego dates back to , when Spanish explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno named the area after the Catholic Saint Didacus. Saint Didacus was more commonly referred to as San Diego de Alcalá.

26 One-named Greek New Age musician : YANNI

Yanni is a remarkable Greek musician who is very successful in the world of New Age music. What I find so remarkable is that he is a self-taught musician. Yanni was born Yiannis Chryssomallis in Kalamata, Greece and moved to the US in to attend the University of Minnesota.

30 Obsessive fan, in slang : STAN

“Stan” is a song by rapper Eminem (featuring Dido) that was recorded in The title refers to a fictional Eminem fan named “Stan” who becomes obsessed with the rapper, and who grows irate when his letters to his idol go unanswered. Stan’s final act is to make a voice recording as he drives into a river, with his pregnant girlfriend locked in the trunk. One of the legacies of the song is that “stan” is now used as a slang term for an obsessed and maniacal fan.

33 Etail site for handmade goods : ETSY

Etsy.com is an e-commerce website where you can buy and sell the kind of items that you might find at a craft fair.

35 Most common answer in New York Times crosswords (more than 6% of all puzzles) : ERA

Arthur Wynne is generally credited with the invention of what we now know as a crossword puzzle. Wynne was born in Liverpool, England and emigrated to the US when he was years-old. He worked as a journalist and was living in Cedar Grove, New Jersey in when he introduced a “Word-Cross Puzzle” in his page of puzzles written for the “New York World”. The first book of crossword puzzles was published by Shuster &#; Shuster, in The collection of puzzles was a huge hit, and crosswords were elevated to the level of “a craze” in and

38 Weapon in the original Clue : LEAD PIPE

Clue is a board game that we knew under a different name growing up in Ireland. Outside of North America, Clue is marketed as “Cluedo”. Cluedo was the original name of the game, introduced in by the famous British board game manufacturer Waddingtons. There are cute differences between the US and UK versions. For example, the man who is murdered is called Dr. Black (Mr. Boddy in the US), one of the suspects is the Reverend Green (Mr. Green in the US), and the suspect weapons include a dagger (a knife in the US), and a spanner (a wrench in the US). I think it&#;s a fabulous game, a must during the holidays …

39 Support for a PC : TECH

The original IBM Personal Computer is model number , which was introduced to the world on August 12, The term “personal computer” was already in use, but the success of the IBM led to the term “PC” being used for all computer products compatible with the IBM platform.

43 U-shaped stringed instrument : LYRE

The lyre is a stringed instrument that is most closely associated with ancient Greece, and with the gods Hermes and Apollo in particular. According to myth, Hermes slaughtered a cow from a sacred herd belonging to Apollo and offered it to the gods but kept the entrails. Hermes used the entrails to make strings that he stretched across the shell of a tortoise, creating the first lyre. Apollo liked the sound from the lyre and agreed to accept it as a trade for his herd of cattle.

45 World&#;s largest cosmetics company : L’OREAL

L’Oréal is a French cosmetics company, the largest cosmetics and beauty company in the world. Here in the US, L’Oréal runs a “Women of Worth” program that honors women who volunteer in their communities. The phrase “Women of Worth” underlines the longstanding L’Oréal slogan “Because I’m worth it”, which evolved into “Because you’re worth it” and eventually “Because we’re worth it”.

50 &#;I give!&#; : UNCLE!

To say uncle is to submit or yield. This peculiarly American use of “uncle” dates back to the early s, but nobody seems to know how “uncle!” came to mean “stop!”

51 Lake on Down&#;s border : TAHOE
(25D San Diego&#;s state, informally : CALI)

Lake Tahoe (often referred to simply as “Tahoe”) is up in the Sierra Nevada mountains, and is located right on the border between California and Nevada. It is the largest alpine lake in the country, and the largest lake in general behind the five Great Lakes. Tahoe is also the second deepest lake, with only the beautiful Crater Lake in Oregon being deeper. Given its location, there are tall casinos that sit right on the shore on the Nevada side of the state line where gambling is legal.

52 Revolutionary Guevara : CHE

Ernesto &#;Che&#; Guevara was born in Argentina, and in he started to study medicine at the University of Buenos Aires. While at school he satisfied his need to &#;see the world&#; by taking two long journeys around South America, the story of which are told in Guevara&#;s memoir later published as &#;The Motorcycle Diaries&#;. While travelling, Guevara was moved by the plight of the people he saw and their working conditions and what he viewed as capitalistic exploitation. In Mexico City he met brothers Raul and Fidel Castro and was persuaded to join their cause, the overthrow of the US-backed government in Cuba. He rose to second-in-command among the Cuban insurgents, and when Castro came to power Guevara was influential in repelling the Bay of Pigs Invasion and bringing Soviet nuclear missiles to the island. Guevara left Cuba in to continue his work as a revolutionary. He was captured by Bolivian forces in , and was executed. Fidel Castro led the public mourning of Guevara&#;s death, and soon the revolutionary was an icon for many left-wing movements around the world.

55 of them make a gal. : TSPS

Teaspoon (tsp.)

59 Long, long time : EON

Geological time is divided into a number of units of varying lengths. These are, starting from the largest:

  • supereon
  • eon (also “aeon”)
  • era
  • period
  • epoch
  • age

60 Many an I.R.S. employee : CPA

Certified public accountant (CPA)

Complete List of Clues/Answers

Across

1 Dip for chips : SALSA
6 Epitome of redness : BEET
10 ___ Jima ( battle site) : IWO
13 The first one was sent in : EMAIL
14 Shape for an eyebrow or rainbow : ARCH
15 Captivated : RAPT
17 Game that has only a single round : RUSSIAN ROULETTE
20 Connections : INS
21 Bay Area airport code : SFO
22 Not get take-out : DINE IN
23 Single item seemingly always found at the bottom of a McDonald&#;s bag : FRENCH FRY
27 Sales at concerts or games, informally : MERCH
28 Region traveled by Across : ASIA
29 Nile biter : ASP
31 &#;Kill Bill&#; actress Lucy : LIU
32 One of more than on a table : ELEMENT
36 Dinghy or dory : BOAT
37 Portmanteau coinage describing this puzzle&#;s theme : ALLITERNATION
40 Club charges : DUES
41 Like some aprons or reputations : STAINED
42 Info for an airport limo driver : ETA
43 NaOH, familiarly : LYE
44 Cartoon collectibles : CELS
47 Hot drink at a ski resort : TODDY
49 Entrance divided in half horizontally : DUTCH DOOR
54 Counter-Strike or League of Legends : E-SPORT
56 &#;Thanks, but I&#;m good&#; : NAH
57 Regret : RUE
58 Board game played on a big hexagram : CHINESE CHECKERS
62 Map with elevation lines, in brief : TOPO
63 Explorer Marco : POLO
64 Informal goodbye : PEACE
65 For each : PER
66 Old dagger : SNEE
67 Tip of a shoelace : AGLET

Down

1 Font flourish : SERIF
2 Egyptian king of the gods : AMUN-RA
3 Scottish girls : LASSES
4 &#;___ boom bah!&#; : SIS
5 &#;Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee&#; boxer : ALI
6 Canada&#;s oldest national park : BANFF
7 Cause for a correction : ERROR
8 Prefix with tourism : ECO-
9 A bad joke might go over with one : THUD
10 &#;Goodnight, ___&#; (classic song) : IRENE
11 Decisive defeat : WATERLOO
12 Professional you might need to see? : OPTICIAN
16 Drill sergeant&#;s shout : TEN-HUT!
18 Volcanic pollutant : ASH
19 Rock&#;s ___ Bizkit : LIMP
24 Nobelist Bohr with a Across named for him : NIELS
25 San Diego&#;s state, informally : CALI
26 One-named Greek New Age musician : YANNI
30 Obsessive fan, in slang : STAN
33 Etail site for handmade goods : ETSY
34 Doled (out) : METED
35 Most common answer in New York Times crosswords (more than 6% of all puzzles) : ERA
36 ___ one&#;s time (waited) : BIDED
37 Where model workers can be found? : AUTO SHOP
38 Weapon in the original Clue : LEAD PIPE
39 Support for a PC : TECH
40 Pick up on : DETECT
43 U-shaped stringed instrument : LYRE
45 World&#;s largest cosmetics company : L’OREAL
46 Listing in a footnote : SOURCE
48 Name on a building wing, perhaps : DONOR
50 &#;I give!&#; : UNCLE!
51 Lake on Down&#;s border : TAHOE
52 Revolutionary Guevara : CHE
53 Button at a bowling alley : RESET
55 of them make a gal. : TSPS
59 Long, long time : EON
60 Many an I.R.S. employee : CPA
61 Container with a pump : KEG

Sours: https://nyxcrossword.com//10/ny-times-crosswordocttuesday.html

Crossword allied 1948 group since

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In addition to being pleasing to the eye, the engravings will imprint custom patterns into dough for patterned cookies, pastries, and other dough-based creations. Approx. Make your own Rolling Pin! The roller is perfect to use with clay, you can use it to give texture to your pottery. Best Gift for pastry chef and blue ribbon pie bakers. () [email protected], Home | About | The Wood | Shop Quick View. Barrel is 12" long x 2 3/8" dia. $, $ Price and other details may vary based on product size and color. 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Allied group

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On this page you will find the solution to Allied group crossword clue. This clue was last seen on LA Times, February 22 Crossword.

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CROSSWORD CLUE: Allied group
SOLUTION: BLOC

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In our website you will find the solution for Allied gp. since crossword clue. Thank you all for choosing our website in finding all the solutions for La Times Daily Crossword. Our page is based on solving this crosswords everyday and sharing the answers with everybody so no one gets stuck in any question. We are a group of friends working hard all day and night to solve the crosswords. Why do you need to play crosswords? Because its the best knowledge testing game and brain teasing. You need to exercise your brain everyday and this game is one of the best thing to do that. In total the crossword has more than 80 questions in which 40 across and 40 down. If you can’t find the answers yet please send as an email and we will get back to you with the solution. This clue is part of LA Times, August 30 Crossword

CLUE: Allied gp. since crossword clue
SOLUTION: OAS
Posted on: August 30
Publisher: LA Times

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