Ap gov chapter 4 outline

Ap gov chapter 4 outline DEFAULT

Summary

4.1What Are Civil Liberties?

The Bill of Rights is designed to protect the freedoms of individuals from interference by government officials. Originally these protections were applied only to actions by the national government; different sets of rights and liberties were protected by state constitutions and laws, and even when the rights themselves were the same, the level of protection for them often differed by definition across the states. Since the Civil War, as a result of the passage and ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment and a series of Supreme Court decisions, most of the Bill of Rights’ protections of civil liberties have been expanded to cover actions by state governments as well through a process of selective incorporation. Nonetheless there is still vigorous debate about what these rights entail and how they should be balanced against the interests of others and of society as a whole.

4.2Securing Basic Freedoms

The first four amendments of the Bill of Rights protect citizens’ key freedoms from governmental intrusion. The First Amendment limits the government’s ability to impose certain religious beliefs on the people, or to limit the practice of one’s own religion. The First Amendment also protects freedom of expression by the public, the media, and organized groups via rallies, protests, and the petition of grievances. The Second Amendment today protects an individual’s right to keep and bear arms for personal defense in the home, while the Third Amendment limits the ability of the government to allow the military to occupy civilians’ homes except under extraordinary circumstances. Finally, the Fourth Amendment protects our persons, homes, and property from unreasonable searches and seizures, and it protects the people from unlawful arrests. However, all these provisions are subject to limitations, often to protect the interests of public order, the good of society as a whole, or to balance the rights of some citizens against those of others.

4.3The Rights of Suspects

The rights of those suspected, accused, and convicted of crimes, along with rights in civil cases and economic liberties, are protected by the second major grouping of amendments within the Bill of Rights. The Fifth Amendment secures various procedural safeguards, protects suspects’ right to remain silent, forbids trying someone twice at the same level of government for the same criminal act, and limits the taking of property for public uses. The Sixth Amendment ensures fairness in criminal trials, including through a fair and speedy trial by an impartial jury, the right to assistance of counsel, and the right to examine and compel testimony from witnesses. The Seventh Amendment ensures the right to jury trials in most civil cases (but only at the federal level). Finally, the Eighth Amendment prohibits excessive fines and bails, as well as “cruel and unusual punishments,” although the scope of what is cruel and unusual is subject to debate.

4.4Interpreting the Bill of Rights

The interrelationship of constitutional amendments continues to be settled through key court cases over time. Because it was not explicitly laid out in the Constitution, privacy rights required clarification through public laws and court precedents. Important cases addressing the right to privacy relate to abortion, sexual behavior, internet activity, and the privacy of personal texts and cell phone calls. The place where we draw the line between privacy and public safety is an ongoing discussion in which the courts are a significant player.

Sours: https://openstax.org/books/american-government-2e/pages/4-summary

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Chapter Outlines & PowerPoints

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  Chapter 01 - The Study of American Government
  Chapter 02 - The Constitution
  Chapter 03 - Federalism
  Chapter 04 - American Political Culture
  Chapter 05 - Civil Liberties
  Chapter 06 - Civil Rights
  Chapter 07 - Public Opinion
  Chapter 08 - Political Participation
  Chapter 09 - Political Parties
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ĉChapter 9 Outline.doc
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  Chapter 10 - Elections and Campaigns
  Chapter 11 - Interest Groups
  Chapter 13 - Congress
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  Chapter 15 - The Bureaucracy
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  Chapter 16 - The Judiciary
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  Chapter 17 - The Policy-Making Process
  Chapter 18 - Economic Policy
  Chapter 19 - Social Welfare
  Chapter 20 - Foreign and Military Policy
  Chapter 21 - Environmental Policy
  Chapter 22 - Who Governs? To What Ends?
Sours: https://sites.google.com/a/hampton.k12.va.us/hhsapgov/chapter-notes
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Introduction

Americans have recently confronted situations in which government officials appeared not to provide citizens their basic freedoms and rights. Protests have erupted nationwide in response to the deaths of African Americans during interactions with police. Many people were deeply troubled by the revelations of Edward Snowden (Figure 4.1) that U.S. government agencies are conducting widespread surveillance, capturing not only the conversations of foreign leaders and suspected terrorists but also the private communications of U.S. citizens, even those not suspected of criminal activity.

These situations are hardly unique in U.S. history. The framers of the Constitution wanted a government that would not repeat the abuses of individual liberties and rights that caused them to declare independence from Britain. However, laws and other “parchment barriers” (or written documents) alone have not protected freedoms over the years; instead, citizens have learned the truth of the old saying (often attributed to Thomas Jefferson but actually said by Irish politician John Philpot Curran), “Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty.” The actions of ordinary citizens, lawyers, and politicians have been at the core of a vigilant effort to protect constitutional liberties.

But what are those freedoms? And how should we balance them against the interests of society and other individuals? These are the key questions we will tackle in this chapter.

Sours: https://openstax.org/books/american-government-2e/pages/4-introduction
AP Gov Chapter 4 Congress

Ap Gov Ch. 4 Questions

What are civil liberties?

Individual legal and constitutional protections against the government.

What does Barron v. Baltimore say?

The Bill of Rights restrained only the national government not the state or local governments.

What does Gitlow v. New York say?

The Bill of Rights restrained the national, state and local governments.

What is the fourteenth amendment?

Everyone has equal protection under the law.

What is the incorporation doctrine?

The concept of the Bill of Rights being applicable to the states and the federal government.

What is the establishment clause?

Congress can't make any law that establishes a religion.

What is the free exercise clause?

Everyone can practice any religion they wish without government controlling it.

What did Lemon v. Kurtzman say about church-related schools?

1) They must have a secular purpose.
2) They must neither advance or inhibit a religion.
3) They must not allow an excessive government entanglement with religion.

What did Zelman v. Simmons-Harris say?

A state must provide needy families with vouchers that can be used to pay for tuition and religious schools.

What did Engel v. Vitale say?

No prayer in public schools is allowed.

What did Pennslyvania v. Schempp say?

A law requiring Bible reading in schools in unconstitutional. `

What is the relationship between religion and American politics?

There have been more debates about religion.

What is freedom of expression?

The right to say, publish or think what they think.

A government preventing material from being published.

What did Near v. Minnesota say?

Newspapers are protected from prior restraint.

What does Schenck v. United States say?

Government can limit speech if it evokes a clear danger (i.e. yelling "Fire" in a crowded theater)

What did Zurcher v. Stanford Daily say?

A search warrant can be applied to a newspaper without it violating the first amendment.

What does Roth v. United States say?

Obscenity is not protected by free speech or press.

What is considered obscene?

1) The work appeals to a interest in sex.
2) The work shows offensive sexual conduct.
3) The work lacks literary, artistic, political or scientific value.

The publication of false statements that damage someone's reputation.

Is it protected by the 1st amendment?

What did NY Times v. Sullivan say?

Statements about public figures are only libel if they are made with malice and disregard for the truth.

Is it easier for private people to win libel cases rather than public figures?

What did Texas v. Johnson say?

Symbolic speech is protected by the 1st amendment.

Non-verbal communication.

What is commercial speech?

Communication such as advertising.

Who restricts commercial speech?

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC).

What did Miami Herald v. Tornillo say?

A state could not force newspapers to publish replies from candidates it had criticized.

What did Red Lion v. FCC say?

It upheld the laws on radio and television broadcasting.

What are the requirements for the right to assemble?

Groups must apply to the city for a permit and pay a bond on it.

What does NAACP v. Alabama say?

A state can not require a membership list of a group.

Police have a reason to believe that a person should be arrested.

What constitutes an unreasonable search and seizure?

A search without a warrant or probable cause.

What is a search warrant?

A written authorization from a court that specifies the area to be searched and what the police are searching for.

What is the exclusionary rule?

Evidence can not be used if it was obtained without a warrant.

What did Mapp v. Ohio say?

The 4th amendment must be extended to states.

What is self-incrimination?

A person accused of a crime is compelled to be a witness against him or her self.

No it is against the 5th amendment.

What did Miranda v. Arizona say?

Suspects must be told of their [miranda] rights.

What did Gideon v. Wainwright say?

Anyone that is accused of a crime is entitled to a lawyer even if they can not afford one.

The defendant pleads guilty to another, lesser crime in order to avoid more serious punishment.

What is the problem with the 8th amendment?

It does not define what cruel and unusual punishment is.

What does Gregg v. Georgia say?

Upheld the consitutionality of the death penalty.

What does McCleskey v. Kemp say?

The death penalty is unconstitutional because minorities are more likely to get it.

Is the right to privacy ever mentioned in the Constitution?

What is the largest controversy over the right to privacy?

What does Roe v. Wade say?

A state can not ban all abortions.

What did Planned Parenthood v. Casey say?

Changed standard from strict scrutiny to undue burden.

What is the problem with majority rule?

It can interfere with civil liberties.

What limits the government?

Sours: https://www.cram.com/flashcards/ap-gov-ch-4-questions-948323

Outline 4 ap chapter gov

American Government, Ninth Edition
James Q. Wilson
John J. DiIulio, Jr., University of Pennsylvania
Study Outline
Chapter 4: American Political Culture

  1. Introduction
    1. The American model of government both here and abroad
    2. Tocqueville on American democracy
      1. Abundant and fertile soil for democracy to grow
      2. No feudal aristocracy; minimal taxes; few legal restraints
      3. Westward movement; vast territory provided opportunities
      4. Nation of small, independent farmers
      5. "Moral and intellectual characteristics," today called political culture
  2. Political Culture
    1. Defined as a distinctive and patterned way of thinking about how political and economic life ought to be carried out (e.g. stronger American belief in political than in economic equality)
    2. Elements of the American political system
      1. Liberty
      2. Democracy
      3. Equality
      4. Civic duty
    3. Some questions about the U.S. political culture
      1. How do we know people share these beliefs?
        Before polls, beliefs inferred from books, speeches, and so on
      2. How do we explain behavior inconsistent with beliefs?
        Beliefs still important, source of change
      3. Why so much political conflict in U.S. history?
        Conflict occurs even with beliefs in common
      4. Most consistent evidence of political culture
        Use of terms Americanism, un-American
    4. The economic system
      1. Americans support free enterprise but see limits on marketplace freedom
      2. Americans prefer equality of opportunity to equality of result; individualist view
      3. Americans have a shared commitment to economic individualism/self-reliance (see 1924 and 1977 polls)
  3. Comparing citizens of the United States with those of other nations
    1. Political system
      1. Swedes: more deferential than participatory
        1. Defer to government experts and specialists
        2. Rarely challenge governmental decisions
        3. Believe in what is best more than what people want
        4. Value equality over liberty
        5. Value harmony and observe obligations
      2. Japanese
        1. Value good relations with colleagues
        2. Emphasize group decisions and social harmony
        3. Respect authority
      3. Americans
        1. Tend to assert rights
        2. Emphasize individualism, competition, equality, following rules, treating others fairly (compare with the Japanese)
      4. Cultural differences affect political and economic systems
      5. Danger of overgeneralizing: many diverse groups within a culture
      6. Almond and Verba: U.S. and British citizens in cross-national study
        1. Stronger sense of civic duty, civic competence
        2. Institutional confidence
        3. Sense of patriotism
    2. Economic system
      1. Swedes (contrasted with Americans): Verba and Orren
        1. Equal pay and top limit on incomes
        2. Less income inequality
      2. Cultural differences make a difference in politics: private ownership in United States versus public ownership in European countries
    3. The Civic Role of Religion
      1. Americans are highly religious compared with Europeans
      2. Recent trends in religiosity
      3. Putnam's "bowling alone" thesis
    4. Religion and Politics
      1. Religious movements transformed American politics and fueled the break with England.
      2. Both liberals and conservatives use the pulpit to promote political change.
      3. Bush, Gore and public support for faith based approaches to social ills
  4. The sources of political culture
    1. Historical roots
      1. Revolution essentially over liberty; preoccupied with asserting rights
      2. Adversarial culture the result of distrust of authority and a belief that human nature is depraved
      3. Federalist-Jeffersonian transition in 1800 legitimated the role of the opposition party; liberty and political change can coexist
    2. Legal-sociological factors
      1. Widespread participation permitted by Constitution
      2. Absence of an established national religion
        1. Religious diversity a source of cleavage
        2. Absence of established religion has facilitated the absence of political orthodoxy
        3. Puritan heritage (dominant one) stress on personal achievement
          1. Hard work
          2. Save money
          3. Obey secular law
          4. Do good
          5. Embrace "Protestant ethic"
        4. Miniature political systems produced by churches' congregational organization
      3. Family instills the ways we think about world and politics
        1. Great freedom of children
        2. Equality among family members
        3. Rights accorded each person
        4. Varied interests considered
      4. Class consciousness absent
        1. Most people consider themselves middle class
        2. Message of Horatio Alger stories is still popular
    3. The culture war
      1. Two cultural classes in America battle over values
      2. Culture war differs from political disputes in three ways:
        1. Money is not at stake
        2. Compromises are almost impossible
        3. Conflict is more profound
      3. Culture conflict animated by deep differences in people's beliefs about private and public morality
      4. Culture war about what kind of country we ought to live in
      5. Two camps:
        1. Orthodox: morality, with rules from God, more important than self-expression
        2. Progressive: personal freedom, with rules based on circumstances, more important than tradition
      6. Orthodox associated with fundamentalist Protestants and progressives with mainline Protestants and those with no strong religious beliefs
      7. Culture war occurring within religious denominations
      8. Current culture war has special importance historically because of two changes:
        1. More people consider themselves progressives than previously
        2. Rise of technology makes culture war easier to wage
  5. Mistrust of government
    1. What the polls say
      1. Since the 1950s, a steady decline in percentage who say they trust the government in Washington
      2. Increase in percentage who think public officials do not care about what we think
      3. Important qualifications and considerations:
        1. Levels of trust rose briefly during the Reagan administration
        2. Distrust of officials is not the same as distrust for our system of government
        3. Americans remain more supportive of the country and its institutions than most Europeans
    2. Possible causes of apparent decline in confidence
      1. Vietnam
      2. Watergate and Nixon's resignation
      3. Clinton's sex scandals and impeachment
      4. Levels of support may have been abnormally high in the 1950s
        1. Aftermath of victory in World War II and possession of Atomic bomb
        2. From Depression to currency that dominated international trade
        3. Low expectations of Washington and little reason to be upset / disappointed
      5. 1960's and 1970's may have dramatically increased expectations of government
      6. Decline in patriotism (temporarily affected by the attacks of September 11)
    3. Necessary to view in context
      1. Decline in confidence not spread to all institutions
      2. Decline in confidence also varies from group to group
      3. American's loss of support for leaders and particular policies does not mean loss of confidence in the political system or each other
  6. Political efficacy
    1. Definition: citizen's capacity to understand and influence political events
    2. Parts
      1. Internal efficacy
        1. Ability to understand and influence events
        2. About the same as in 1950s
      2. External efficacy
        1. Belief that system will respond to citizens
        2. Not shaped by particular events
        3. Declined steadily through the 1960s and 1970s
    3. Comparison: still much higher than Europeans'
    4. Conclusion
      1. Some say Americans are more "alienated" from politics
      2. But current research has not easily established a relationship between trust in government and confidence in leaders and vote turnout
      3. Decline in trust and confidence may mean support for non-incumbents and third party candidates
  7. Political tolerance
    1. Crucial to democratic politics
      1. Citizens must be reasonably tolerant
      2. But not necessarily perfectly tolerant
    2. Levels of American political tolerance
      1. Most Americans assent in abstract
      2. But would deny rights in concrete cases
        1. Liberals intolerant of extreme right
        2. Conservatives intolerant of extreme left
      3. Most are willing to allow expression to most
      4. Americans have become more tolerant in recent decades
    3. Question: How do very unpopular groups survive?
      1. Most people do not act on beliefs
      2. Usually no consensus on whom to persecute
      3. Courts are sufficiently insulated from public opinion to enforce protection
    4. Conclusions
      1. Political liberty cannot be taken for granted
      2. No group should pretend it is always tolerant
        1. Conservatives once targeted professors
        2. Later, professors targeted conservatives


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Sours: https://college.cengage.com/polisci/wilson/am_gov/9e/students/studyoutline/ch04.html
AP GOV Explained: Government in America Chapter 5

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